This General Public Online Bibliography is a Compilation of the Main Sources, Books and Articles about the Internet, its global and emerging trends, main companies and general resources in the US and in dozens of countries.

This document « Les sources du web »/«The internet’s resources and bibliography » is a general bibliography about «the internets ». It aggregates hundreds of book references and articles about the internet easily reachable to researchers, journalists or startupers.

This 50+ pages bibliography has been initially made for my book Smart (Publisher: Stock, Paris, 2014, translated in a dozen countries) but it is constantly updated here. It begins with general references and statistical sources, followed by books and articles by topic and/or by country. Some notes and statistics are included throughout the different sections. The presentation follows this outline:

– General references

– Statistical sources

– Books and articles by topic and/or country

[*** Legal information: This document is provided by the website It is under a Creative Commons label : cc by-nc. With the exception of this label, all other rights reserved. © Frédéric Martel (2016) ]

General Bibliography

General References on the internet, Culture, Medias and Globalization at Large

– This online bibliography is the digital companion of my book Smart which is the third volume of an investigation on culture and globalization. It uses some historical background and information from my previous books : F. Martel, De la Culture en Amérique (publisher: Gallimard, 2006) and Mainstream (publisher: Flammarion, 2012). My PhD dissertation has been used as well: F. Martel, Politique publique, philanthropie privée et intérêt général dans le système culturel américain (PhD directed by Pierre Rosanvallon ; 6 vol., 3 888 p., EHESS, 2006 ; it contains a 140 pages bibliography, 434 original documents from the US National Archives ; Dissertation available at the EHESS library, Paris, and at the Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Paris). To summarize my researches, one could say that I worked on three main US cultural and communication agencies: on the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA), see De la Culture en Amérique ; for the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA), see Mainstream ; for the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), see Smart.

Other general references:

– Eric Schmidt, Jared Cohen, The New Digital Age: Reshaping the Future of People, Nations and Business, Knopf, 2013.

– Ken Auletta, The Highwaymen, Warriors of the information superhighway, Random House, 1997. (Compilation of articles by New Yorker journalist, Ken Auletta).

Backstory, Inside the Business of News, Penguin Press, 2003, 296 p.

Media Man, Ted Turner’s Improbable Empire, Atlas Books, 2004 , 205 p.

World War 3.0, Microsoft vs. the U.S. Government and the Battle to Rule the Digital Age, Broadway Books, 2001, 444 p.

— Googled, The End of the World As We Know It, Virgin Books, 2009.

– Samuel Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations, and the Remaking of World Order, Simon & Schuster, 1996, 367 p. ; Translation : Le Choc des civilisations, Odile Jacob, 2007.

– Joseph Nye, Soft Power, The Means to Success in World Politics, PublicAffairs, 192 p., 2004.

The Paradox of American Power : Why the World’s Only Super Power Can’t Go it Alone, 2002.

– Parag Khanna, The Second World, How Emerging Powers Are Redefining Global Competition in the Twenty-First Century, Random House, 465 p., 2008.

– Fareed Zakaria, The Post-American World, and the Rise of the Rest, Norton, 2008, 292 p. (Paperback by Penguin Books). Translation : L’Empire américain : l’heure du partage, Saint-Simon, 260 p., préface d’Hubert Védrine, 2009.

– Thomas Friedman, The World is Flat, A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century, Picador, 2005.


General References on the Economics of Creative Industries

– Richard E. Caves, Creative Industries : Contracts Between Art and Commerce, Harvard University Press, Cambridge/Massachusetts, 2000, 454 p.

– V.A. Ginsburgh, D. Throsby, ed., Handbook of the Economics of Art & Culture, 2006, 1400 p., publisher : North-Holland.

– David Hesmondhalgh, The Cultural Industries, SAGE Publications, 2002. (See “Change and Continuity, Power and Creativity”, on the history of the expression “cultural industries”).

– David Throsby, Economics and Culture, Cambridge University Press, 2004, 208 p. (Throsby is a funder of the economy of culture).


On Media Groups and Concentrations in the US

– Paul Starr, The Creation of the Media, Political Origins of Modern Communications, Basic Books, New York, 2004. (A key book about media history: for the history of radio regulation see part 3, pp. 233-403).

– Mara Einstein, Media Diversity, Economics, Ownership and the FCC, 2004, 249 p. (A key book on the subject, especially on the Federal Communications Commission, and the specific subject of « Financial Interest and Syndication Rules » or « Fin-Sin »).

– Edwin C. Baker, Media Concentration and Democracy : Why Ownership Matters, Cambridge University Press, 2006

– Leo Bogart, Commercial Culture, the Media System & the Public Interest, Oxford University Press, 2000

– Benjamin M. Compaine, Douglas Gomery, Who Owns the Media ? Competition and Concentration in the Mass Media Industry, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, New Jersey, 2000, {3rd ed}, 604 p. (A book updated in each new edition).

– James T. Hamilton, All the News That’s Fit To Sell, Princeton University Press, 2006, 352 p.

– Robert W. McChesney, Rich Media, Poor Democracy, Communications Politics in Dubious Time, University of Illinois Press, 1999, 427 p. (See chapter : « The Media System Goes Global).

– Other books on the subject : Kevin Kelly, What Technology Wants, Viking, 2010 ; James Gleick, The Information, A History, a Theory, a Flood, Fourth Estate, 2011 ; Nicholas Carr, The Shallows, What the Internet is doing to Our Brains, Norton, 2011.


About internet and Democracy

– Evgeny Morozov, The Net Delusion : the Dark Side of Internet Freedom, Public Affairs, 2011 and To Save Everything Click Here : the Folly of Technological Solutionism, Public Affairs, 2013 (Morozov is a key opponent of the idea that the internet is as an accelerator of democracy).

– Michael Gladwell, « Small Change, Why the Revolution will not be Tweeted », The New Yorker, Oct 4, 2010.

– Nicholas A. Christakis & James Fowler, Connected, The Surprising Power of Our Social Networks and How They Shape our Lives, Little, Brown & Company, 2009.

– Joe Trippi, The Revolution will not be Televised, Democracy, The Internet and the Overthrow of Everything, Regan Books, 2004.

– John Mcginnis, Accelerating Democracy, Matching Governance to Technological Change, Princeton University, 2013.

– Amartya Sen, Identity and Violence: The Illusion of Destiny, Norton, 2006. By the same author, see: « Democracy and Its Global Roots: Why Democratization is Not the Same as Westernization », New Republic, October 6, 2003.


About the « internets »

– The expression « the internets » has been in the air for a while but, in general, it has mainly been used ironically. Its origins can be traced to a speech by George W. Bush during the presidential campaign in 2004 : « I hear there’s rumors on the, uh, Internets». (here is the video)

– Some other uses of « the internets » do exist, but there are generally ironic. The magazine Wired has used « internet » without capitalization for some time.

– See also : Eli Pariser, The Filter Buble, What the Internet is Hiding from You, Penguin, 2012


Theory and General Readings

– Marshall Mc Luhan, Understanding Media, 1964 ; translation : Pour comprendre les média, Mame/Seuil, 1968, republished : 1977. On Mc Luhan, see also : Philip Marchand, Marshall McLuhan, The Medium and the Messenger, The MIT Press, 1989.

– Other readings : Jean-François Fogel & Bruno Patino, La Condition numérique, Grasset, 2013 ; Norbert Wiener, The Human Use of Human Beings, Doubleday Anchor Book, 1950 ; Manuel Castells, Communication et pouvoir, Editions de la Maison, des sciences de l’homme.


Internet statistics

– On Internet statistics I use data from the World Bank and the International Telecommunication Union (The World Bank/ITU, The Little Data Book on Information and Communication Technology, 2013, Geneva, 2013). See also: International Telecommunication Union, ICT, Facts and Figures, 2013, Geneva, 2013.

– WTO, International Trade Statistics, 2008, p. 255. (Among the best ressource on data and streams of international culture).

– IMF. I use Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2008 and the World Economic Outlook, July 2009.

– Europe : I use Eurostat (Statistical Office of the European Communities) : Eurostat Pocketbooks, Science, Technology and Innovation in Europe, 2013.

– UNESCO. I use data from the Unesco’s Institute for Statistics. See : UNESCO Institute for Statistic, UNESCO Sector for Culture, International Flows of Selected Cultural Goods and Services, 1994-2003, 2005 (not necessarily reliable)

– IDATE, DigiWorld Yearbook 2008, p. 175.

– On Ranking : To get a first overview of any website ranking, I use which is sufficiently reliable.

– PriceWaterHouseCoopers, Global Entertainment and Media Outlook : 2008-2012, Forecasts and Economic Analyses of 15 Industry Segments, unpublihed and confidential document p. 792, New York (15 creative sectors and 59 countries).

– I also recommend the helpful « Internet Trends 2014/Code Conference », an annual report edited by Mary Meeker for KPCB (Kleiner, Perkins, Caufield et Byers, USA). (Free online at

– For data about internet users in the US, see the Census Statistical Abstract :  ; In particular, see this table :

– For broadband (cable/fiber optics) and dial-up statistics in the US, I use NTIA data. Basically, in 2011, 50 % of US Households had access to the internet through cable ; 34 % DSL ; 6 % fiber optics ; 3 % satellite ; 3 % dial-up. See
More recently (2014), these numbers are : 60 % of US households get the internet through cable ; 32 % by DSL/phone ; 8% by fiber optic). Overall, high speed broadband is late and the US are in 15th position on internet speed worldwide).

– For the movie industry and digital home video, see : MPAA reports ; Nielsen data ; Variety and the Hollywood Reporter ; for international box office : On music and online music, see: Nielsen SoundScan (every Wednesday to subscripters) and Billboard. On the book market (US/Canada), see: Nielsen BookScan. On advertissement, I use Advertising Age. On radio’s statistics, see : Top 200 (for commercial ones) and CMJ New Music Report at (for non profit ones).

– In addition, I use several other sources, both global and national : Emarketer ( ; the Google Transparency Report ( ; the CIA World Factbook ; METI (for Japan cultural industries) ; 2002 Gallup Poll of the Islamic World (an interesting comparison about TV in 9 muslim countries: Pakistan, Iran, Indonesia, Turkey, Lebanon, Marrocco, Kuwait, Jordan and Saudi Arabia).


Silicon Valley and the US

On Silicon Valley

– John Markoff, What the Dormouse Said, How the 60s Counter-culture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry, Penguin Book, 2006

– Fred Turner, From Counterculture to Cyberculture : Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the rise of digital utopianism, University of Chicago Press, 2006

– Steven Levy, Hackers, Heroes of the Computer Revolution, 1984 ; trans. : L’Ethique des hackers, Globe, 2013.

– A few key articles : Nathan Heller, « Bay Watched », New Yorker, October, 14, 2013 (on the relations between San Francisco counterculture and the start-up economy) ; D. T. Max, « Two-Hit Wonder », New Yorker, October, 21, 2013 (On Jack Dorsey, founder of Twitter and Square) ; George Packer, « Change the World. Silicon Valley Transfers its Slogans and its Money to the Realm of Politics », New Yorker, May, 27, 2013 ; Yiren Lu, « Silicon Valley’s Youth Problem », New York Times Magazine, March 12, 2014.

– On US direct and indirect subsidies to Silicon Valley : Mariana Mazzucato, The Entrepreneurial State, Anthem Press, 2013. See also the article : Somini Sengupta, « The Pentagon as Silicon Valley’s Incubator », New York Times, August 22, 2013 ; « The Entrepreneurial State », The Economist, August 31st, 2013. (See also, below, indirect subsidies to the US video game industry).

– Sarah Lacy, Once You’re Lucky, Twice You’re Good. The Rebirth of Silicon Valley and the Rise of Web 2.0, Gotham Books, 2008.

– Tad Friend, « Tomorrow’s Advance Man », The New Yorker.


On the Cloud

– George Gilder, « The Information Factories », Wired, Octobre 2006 (a dated but prescient article on the cloud).

– Quentin Hardy, « Google Joins a Heavyweight Competition in Cloud Computing », The New York Times, December 3, 2013.

– Quentin Hardy, « The Era of Cloud Computing », The New York Times


On Big Data

– Viktor Mayer-Schonberger & Kenneth Cukier, Big Data: A Revolution That Will Transform How We Live, Work and Think, John Murray ed., 2013 (reed. in paperback in 2014).


On « acqui-hiring »

– Miguel Helft, « For Buyers of Web Start-Ups, Quest to Corral Young Talent », New York Times, May 17, 2011.


On Stanford University

– Ken Auletta, « Get Rich U. », New Yorker, April, 30, 2012 (a key article on Stanford University)

– Stephen Adams, Follow the Money, Engineering at Stanford and UC Berkeley During the Rise of Silicon Valley, Minerva, 2009. Paper.

– Stanford alumni created 69,000 corportations : 39,900 for profit and 30,000 non-profit : these numbers come from Charles E. Eesley, William Miller, « Stanford University’s Economic Impact via Innovation and Entrepreurship », October 2012 (a study by Stanford/Sequoia Capital).


MIT (Medialab)

– On US universities and innovation (especially MIT), see also : Henry Etzkowitz, MIT and the Rise of Entrepreneurial Science, Routledge, 2002 ; William J. Mitchell, e-topia, The MIT Press, 1999 (Mitchell is a key figure at MIT and the Dean of the School of Architecture and Planning)

– Frank Moss, The Sorcerers and Their Apprentices: How the Digital Magicians of the MIT Media Lab are Creating the Innovative Technologies That Will Transform Our Lives. Crown Business 2011.

– Stewart Brand, The Media Lab : Inventing the Future at MIT. Penguin Books ltd 1989.


On Research, Development and Innovation

– Jean-Baptiste Soufron, « Les acrobates de l’innovation », Esprit, Juillet 2011.


Demography & gender issues in Silicon Valley

– Demography : Yiren Lu, « Silicon Valley’s Youth Problem », The New York Times, March 12, 2014.

– On male-dominated Silicon Valley culture : Ken Auletta, « A Woman’s Place. Can Sheryl Sandberg Upend Silicon Valley’s Male-Dominated Culture ? », New Yorker, July 11-18, 2011.

– Howard Gardner and Katie Davis, The App Generation: How Today’s Youth Navigate Identity, Intimacy, and Imagination in a Digital World, Yale University Press, 2013.


On Social Media

Thousands of books and articles have been written on specific companies (Google, Apple, Facebook, Amazon, Microsoft, Twitter etc.). I would like to mention here only articles that I found interesting for my research : see below those on Google, Yahoo, Apple, Facebook, Amazon, Microsoft, Twitter, AOL, Dropbox, Tumblr, Vine, Airbnb, Kickstarter etc.


On Google

– Eric Schmidt, Jared Cohen, The New Digital Age, Reshaping the Future of People, Nations and Business, Knopf, 2013 (a book by the CEO of Google). See also : Eric Schmidt, Jared Cohen, « The Future of Internet Freedom », New York Times, March 11, 2014.

– Adam Fisher, « Google’s Road Map to Global Domination », The New York Times, December 12, 2013.

– Cécile Ducourtieux, « Google Influences : le lobbying habile du géant d’Internet en France », Le Monde, December 21, 2012.

– Steven Levy, How Google Thinks, Works, and Shapes our Lives, Simon & Schuster, 2011 (see chapter : Google.Gov).

– On Google’s issues with US Regulators. On Street View see : David Streitfeld, « Google Concedes That Drive-Bt Prying Violated Privacy », New York Times, March 12, 2013 ; Claire Cain Miller, « Google Accused of Wiretrapping in Gmail Scans », New York Times, October 1, 2013.

– Fred Vogelstein, Dogfight, How Apple and Google Went to War and Started a Revolution, Farrar, Straus & Giroux, November 1, 2013.

– Ken Auletta, Googled, The End of the World As We Know It, Virgin Books, 2009.

– Nicholas Lemann, « When G.M. Was Google », The New Yorker.


On Yahoo

– Richard Beales, Robert Cyran, « Why It May Take More Than Former Google Stars to Turn Yahoo Around », The New York Times, January 16, 2014 ; Vindu Goel, « With Ad Dollars Elusive, Yahoo’s Revenue Falls », New York Times, January 28, 2014.

– Nicholas Carlson, « What Happened When Marissa Mayer Tried to Be Steve Jobs », The New York Times


On Apple

– The (official) biography of Steve Jobs is well-known and has been a global best-seller : Walter Isaacson, Steve Jobs, Simon & Schuster, 2013.

– Fred Vogelstein, « And then Steve Said, ‘Let There Be an iPhone’ », The New York Times, Octobre 4, 2013.

– On the Justice Department’s Lawsuit against Apple : David Streitfeld, « Cut in E-book pricing by Amazon is Set to Shake Rivals », New York Times, April 11, 2012

– Edward Wyatt and Nick Wingfield, « U.S. Now Paints Apple as “Ringmaster” in its Lawsuit on E-book Price-Fixing », New York Times, May 14, 2013

– Brian Chen, « U.S. Cites Phone Calls in Apple Pricing Case », New York Times, June 3, 2013.

– Molly Wood, « The Map Apps That Move You in the Right Direction », The New York Times

– Matt Richtel and Brian X. Chen, « Tim Cook, Making Apple His Own », The New York Times

– Brent Schlender and Rick Tetzeli, Becoming Steve Jobs : The Evolution of a Reckless Upstart Into a Visionary Leader, Crown Business 2015


On Facebook

– Tom Standage, Writing on the Wall, Social Media. The First 2,000 Years, Bloomsbury, 2013.

– « The Value of Friendship », The Economist, February 4th, 2012 ; David Kushner, « Facebook Philosophy: Move Fast and Break Things. Hacker Culture Is Alive and Well at Facebook », Spectrum/IEEE ; Miguel Helft and matt Richtel, « Facebook Prepares to Add Friends in Washington », New York Times, March 28, 2011.

– On Facebook and regulation : Somini Sengupta, « FTC Settles Privacy Issue at Facebook », New York Times, November 29, 2011 ; Vindu Goel and Edward Wyatt, « Facebook Privacy Change is Subject of FTC Inquiry », New York Times, September 11, 2013.

– For the quotation of Mark Zuckerberg about « terrorism », see: George Packer, « Change the World », New Yorker, May 27, 2013.

– « How to win friends and influence people » The Economist.


On Amazon

Mike Isaac, « Amazon’s Jeff Bezos Ewplains Why He Bought The Wahsington Post », The New York Times

Farhad Manjoo, « Amazon’s Grand Design in Devices », The New York Times

– See also below the chapter on Content & Culture below


On Microsoft

– ­Ken Auletta, World War 3.0, Microsoft vs. the US Government, and the Battle to Rule the Digital Age, Broadway Books, 2001 (on the battle between the Department of Justice, Antitrust division, and Microsoft).

– Nick Wingfield, « U.S. Said to Look into Microsoft Bribery Allegations », New York Times, March 19, 2013.

– Kurt Eichenwald, « Microsoft’s Lost Decade », Vanity Fair, August 2012.


On Twitter

– Nick Bilton, Hatching Twitter, A True Story of Money, Power, Friendship and Betrayal, Portfolio/Penguin, 2013.

– Steven Levy, « The Many Sides of Jack Dorsey », Wired, July 2012.



–  Ken Auletta, « You’ve got News, Can Tim Armstrong save AOL ? », The New Yorker, January 24, 2011.


On Wikipedia

– Andrew Lih, The Wikipedia Revolution, Hyperion, 2009 (afterword by Jimmy Wales).

– Stacy Schiff, « Know It All: Can Wikipedia Conquer Expertise ? », The New Yorker, July 31, 2006.

– Jonathan Dee, « All the News That’s Fit to Print Out », New York Times, July 1, 2007.

– On Wikipedia statistics, I use data made available by Wikipedia itself : General information : ; Some graphs : ; about consultations : ; Wikimedia Grid Report :


On Medium

–  Nancy Scola, « How Medim is breaking Washington’s op-ed habit », Politico


On PayPal

–  George Parker, The Unwinding, chapter « Silicon Valley », Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2014


On Instagram

–  Caroline Moss, « The First Family of Instagram », The New York Times



– A profile of the founder of Uber : Rana Foroohar : « The Disrupter, Travis Kalanick », Time, december 21, 2015.



– Mike Isaac, « Pinterest Pushing Deeper Into Ads », New York Times.


Others Start-ups :

– On Dropbox : Marcus Wohlsen, « Dropbox has a Radical Plan : Become the Portal to Your Digital World – and Join the Ranks of Apple, Google and Facebook », Wired, Oct 2013.

– On Tumblr : Leslie Kaufman, « Tumblr to End Storyboard and Dismiss 3 Employees », New York Times, April 10, 2013 ; Rob Walker, « Can Tumblr’s David Karp Embrace Ads Without Selling Out ? », New York Times, July 16, 2012.

– On Vine : Mat Honan, « Loopers : The Founders of Vine talk about their 6-Second Sensation », Wired, July 2013.

– On Airbnb : Elizabeth A. Harris, « The Airbnb Economy in New York : Lucrative but Often Illegal », New York Times, November 4, 2013 ; David Streitfeld, « New York’s Case Against Airbnb Is Argued in Albany », New York Times, April 22, 2014 ; Eric Schneiderman, « Taming the Digital Wild West », New York Times, April 22, 2014 (Schneiderman is attorney general of the State of New York).

– On Kickstarter : Carlye Adler, « Brothers of Invention », Wired, Mars 2011.

– On LinkedIn : Nicholas Lemann, « The Network Man », The New Yorker.


Internet Archive

– Jill Lepore, « The Cobweb », The New Yorker


Internet Regulations


On Regulations in the US (background)

– Paul Starr, The Creation of the Media, Political Origins of Modern Communications, Basic Books, 2004 (with an historical perspective).

– Tim Wu, The Master Switch, The Rise and Fall of Information Empires, Vintage Books, 2011

– Ken Auletta, « The Referee », in The Highwaymen, Warriors of the Information Superhighway, Random House, 1997 (chapter on the FCC)

­— World War 3.0, Microsoft vs. the US Government, and the Battle to Rule the Digital Age, Broadway Books, 2001 (on the battle between Dpt of Justice, and its Antitrust division, and Microsoft).

– Mara Einstein, Media Diversity, Economics, Ownership and the FCC, Publisher: Erlbaum, 2004 (on « Fin-syn »)

– Howard J. Blumenthal, Oliver Goodenough, This Business of Television, Billboard Books, 2006 (several shorts chapters on the FCC)

– See also : William Kennard, « Strategic Plan : A new FCC for the 21st Century », Report to the FCC, 1999 and Ev Ehrlich, « A Progressive Broadband Policy Agenda », note from the Progressive Policy Institute, 2012.

– Regarding these issues, I also used several articles by UCLA’s professor, Gabriel Rossman.


On F. D. Roosevelt and Regulations during the New Deal

– Arthur Schlesinger, The Age of Roosevelt, 3 volumes, 1951-1958. I especially use The Crisis of the Old Order (vol. 2) and The Coming of the New Deal (vol. 3)

– See also : Alan Brinkley, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Oxford University Press, 2010 ; Jean Edward Smith, FDR, Random House, 2007.

– I found the speech by Roosevelt about the creation of the Federal Communications Commission in the Public Papers at the Roosevelt Library in Hyde Park (New York State) where I visited his archives. On the « fireside chats » at the radio, see: Lawrence W. Levine and Cornelia R. Levine, ed., The People and the President : America’s Extraordinary Conversation with FDR, Beacon Press, 2002.


On Supreme Court Decisions

– Kermit L. Hall, James W. Ely Jr., The Oxford United States Supreme Court Decisions, 2nd Edition, Oxford University Press, 2009, 495 p.

– Peter Irons, A People’s History of the Supreme Court, The Men and Women Whose Cases and Decisions Have Shaped Our Constitution, Penguin Books, 1999.


On Rupert Murdoch, Fox TV, 20th Century Fox and Regulations

– Ken Auletta, « The Pirate », The New Yorker, November 13, 1995 (this article shows how Rupert Murdoch helped to change FCC television regulations).


On the Federal Communications Commission (FCC)

– Key books are mentionned in the beginning of this bibliography. See also: Brian Stelter and Jenna Wortham, « FCC Plan to Widen Internet Access in US Sets Up Battle », New York Times, March 12, 2010 ; Edward Wyatt, « New Chief of the F.C.C is Confirmed », New York Times, October 30, 2013 ; Edward Wyatt, « F.C.C Nominee Favors Competition Over Regulation », New York Times, June 18, 2013.

– On the history of the FCC: Edmund Andrews, « Pursuing Al Sike’s Grand Agenda », New York Times, June 2, 1991.

– David Balto and Hal Singer, « The FCC’s Incentive Auction : Getting Spectrum Policy Right », Progressive Policy Institute, Paper, September 2013.

– Gabriel Hyman Rossman, « The Effects Of Ownership Concentration on Media Content », Academic Paper, September 2005.


On the Federal Trade Commission (FTC)

– Articles on the FTC and regulations: Edward Wyatt, « F.T.C. Says Webcam’s Flaw Put Users’ Lives on Display », New York Times, September 4, 2013.

Documents from The Department of Commerce (NTIA)

– The Departement of Commerce, « Copyright Policy, Creativity, and Innovation in the Digital Economy», Paper, June 2013.

– The Departement of Commerce, « Exploring the Digital Nation : America’s Emerging Online Experience », Paper, June 2013.

– The Departement of Commerce, « Consumer Data Privacy in a Networked World », Paper, February 2012.

– The Department of Commerce, « Exploring The Digital Nation Computer and Internet Use at Home », Paper, November 2011.

– The Departement of Commerce, « Cybersecurity, Innovation and the Internet Economy », Paper, June 2011.


Other internet Regulations

– On the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act of 1998, or Coppa, see: Natasha Singer, « New Online Privacy Rules for Children », New York Times, December 19, 2012.

– Russell Southwood, « Policy and Regulatory Issues in the Mobile internet », APC, May, 2011.


On Barack Obama’s internet Regulations

– On the Obama administration, I use the book by Susan Crawford, Captive Audience : The Telecom Industry and Monopoly Power in the New Gilded Age, Yale University Press, 2013 (Crawford, former assistant to the President, emphasizes the necessity for some kind of regulation for the telecom, cable and internet industries).

– On the links between Google and the Federal Government, see: Steven Levy, How Google Thinks, Works, and Shapes our Lives, Simon & Schuster, 2011 (see chapter: « Google.Gov »).

– The Obama project for Digital Government : « Building a 21st Century Platform to Better Serve the American People », Official document, The White House, May 23, 2013.

– I also read some more general books about the Obama administration and policies: Michael Grunwald, The New New Deal : The Hidden Story of Change in the Obama Era, Simon & Schuster, 2012 ; John Heilemann & Mark Halperin, Game Change, Obama and the Clintons, McCain and Palin, and the Race of a Lifetime, Harper, 2010 ; Jonathan Alter, The Promise, President Obama, Year One, Simon & Schuster, 2010 ; David Remnick, The Bridge, The Life and Rise of Barack Obama, Picador, 2010.

– On the new positions of Chief Technologies Officer and Chief Information Officer: Steve Lohr, « White House Names a New Chief of Information Technology », New York Times, August 4, 2011.

– On Obama at large: Sasha Issenberg, The Victory Lab, The Secret Science of Winning Campaigns, Crown Publishers, 2012 (a key book on the use of internet during the Obama 2012 campaign).


On US e-Diplomacy

– Jared Cohen, Children of Jihad, A Young American’s Travels among the Youth of the Middle East, Gotham Books, 2007. (The book is more a travel report on the Middle East than a plan for the Department of State, but Cohen was appointed to a post overseeing digital diplomacy after its publication).

– Jesse Lichtenstein, « Digital Diplomacy », New York Times, 16 juillet 2010.

– James Glanz and John Markoff, « U.S. Underwrites Internet Detour Around Censors », New York Times, June 12, 2011.

– Steven Lee Myers, Heather Timmons, « Clinton Urges Countries Not to Stifle Online Voices », New York Times, December 8, 2011.

– Nicholas Lemann, « Worlds Apart, Obama, McCain, and the Future of Foreign Policy », New Yorker, October 13, 2008.

– « Virtual Relations, Digital Diplomacy », The Economist, September, 22, 2012.

– Grégoire Chamayou, A Theory of the Drone, Hardcover 2015.


On the FCC and « Net Neutrality » (and the Consequences of the Decision « Verizon v. Federal Communications Commission » in 2013)

– Edward Wyatt, « F.C.C., in a Shift, Backs Fast Lanes for Web Traffic », The New York Times, April 23, 2014 ; Edward Wyatt, « Top Cable Lobbyist Argues Against Broadband as Utility », New York Times, April 29, 2014 ; Edward Wyatt, « Judges Hear Arguments on Rules for Internet », New York Times, September 9, 2014 ; Brian Fung, « The Decades-Old Idea that Could Break the Net Neutrality », The Washington Post, April 21, 2014 ; Edward Wyatt, « F.C.C. Seeks a New Path on ‘Net Neutrality’ Rules », The New York Times, February 19, 2014 ;  Edward Wyatt, «  F.C.C. Chairman Adds More Ambiguity to His Position on Network Neutrality », The New York Times, January 15, 2014 ; Edward Wyatt, « Rebuffing F.C.C in ‘Net Neutrality’ Case, Court Allows Streaming Deals », The New York Times, January 14 ; Gautham Nagesh, Amol Sharma, « Court Tosses Rules of Road for Internet », Wall Street Journal, January 14, 2014 ; Jon Bordkin, « Net Neutrality is Half-Dead : Court Strikes Down FCC’s Anti-Blocking Rules », Ars Technica, January 14 , 2014 ; Edward Wyatt, « Judges Hear Arguments on Rules for Internet », New York Times, September 9, 2013.

– On the new proposition by the FCC (May, 2015) : Edward Wyatt, « A Tough Stretch for Tom Wheeler on Net Neutrality », New York Times, May 10, 2014 ; Jeff Sommer, « Defending the Open Internet », New York Times, May 10, 2014 ; David Carr, « Warnings Along the FCC’s Fast Lane », New York Times, May 11, 2014 ; Edward Wyatt, « F.C.C Backs Opening Net Neutrality Rules for Debate », New York Times, May 15, 2014 ; and see the Editorial, « Searching for Fairness on the Internet », New York Times, May 15, 2015. See also : Farhad Manjoo, « Did Regulators Break the Internet or Did They Save It ? Yes », New York Times, May 16, 2014.

– A point of view by the former Obama advisor: Susan Crawford, « Back to the Digital Drawing Board », The New York Times, January 16, 2013 ; see also : Ev. Ehrlich, « A Progressive Broadband Policy Agenda », Progressive Policy Institute, 2013 (an interesting analysis from the Obama side)

– Robert M. McDowell, « Dissenting Statement of Commissioner Robert M. McDowell », Paper, December, 2010. (McDowell was a US FCC Commissionner).

– For the last development of the net neutrality debate see theses recent articles :

– Rebecca R. Ruiz and Steve Lohr, « F.C.C. Approves Net Neutrality Rules, Classifying Broadband Internet Service as a Utility », The New York Times.

– Steve Lohr, « In Net Neutrality Push, F.C.C. Is Expected to Propose Regulating Internet Service as a Utility », The New York Times.



European Regulations

– On data protection: David Jolly, « European Union Takes Steps Toward Protecting Data », New York Times, March 12, 2014.

– On Cloud regulations: Danny Hakim, « Europe Aims to Regulate the Cloud », New York Times, October 6, 2013.

– Yves Eudes, « Très chères données personnelles », Le Monde, June 4, 2013.

– Claire Cain Miller, « Europeans Reach Deal With Google on Searches », The New York Times, April 14, 2013.

– On roaming fees: Kevin J. O’Brien, « Official Pushes for End to Roaming Fees in Europe », New York Times, May 30, 2013 ; James Kanter and Mark Scott, « European Panel Adopts “Net Neutrality” and Mobile Roaming Rules », New York Times, March 18, 2014.

– On patent dispute: Danny Hakim, « Tech Giants Fear Spread of Patent Wars in Europe », New York Times, September 25, 2013.

– On taxation and tax avoidance, see the report from the « Commission Expert Group on Taxation of the Digital Economy », May 2014 (European Commission). See also the imaginative proposal by Pierre Colin & Nicolas Colin, Rapport sur la fiscalité du secteur numérique, Jan. 18, 2013, Report to the minister Arnaud Montebourg, France (this report imagine a taxation on datas ; see the report on the ministry web site).


Internet by countries

On the internet in Cuba

– Victoria Burnett, « In Cuba’s Press, Streets and Living Rooms, Glimmers of Openness to Criticism », The New York Times, December 7, 2013 ; Girish Gupta, « Cuba’s Journey on the Internet : There’s a Long March Ahead », Time, August 14, 2013.

– Pico Iyer, « Cuban Evolution », Time, July 8, 2013 ; and « Wired, at last – Cuba and the Internet », The Economist, March 5th, 2011.

– Yoani Sánchez, Cuba Libre (spanish), translated in english : Havana Real, Melville House, 2011. (Similar to her blog, the book is a collection of sketches of daily life in Cuba : a dreary, enervating route of food shortages, transportation troubles and narrowed opportunity). See also the review by Larry Rohter, « In Cuba, the Voice of a Blog Generation », New York Times, July 5, 2011.

– On Cuba, human rights and freedom of expression, see : Nik Steinberg and Daniel Wilkinson, « The Heroes of Cuba », New York Review of Books, May 27, 2010 and the Human Rights Watch report on which this article is based.


On « One Laptop per Child »

– Nicholas Negroponte, co-founder of the MediaLab at MIT, is also the Chaiman of the NGO « One Laptop per Child ». He wrote several books on the subject : Nicholas Negroponte & Joel H. Rosenthal, The $100 Laptop : the Next two Billions People to Go Digital, Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs, 2005 ; Nicholas Negroponte, Being Digital, Knopf, 1995 (a book where Negroponte predicts the merging of the interactive world, the entertainment industry and the information sector).

– Some information is available on the One Laptop per Child website :


On internet in Soweto and South Africa

– David Smith, « Gamble that Outmanoeuvred South Africa and Spawned Silicon Savannah », The Guardian, October 31, 2012.

– Mark Oppenheimer, David Ansara, « Putting Books into their Hands », Mail & Guardian, August 24, 2012.
Silicon Valley


On the internet in China

– For an overview of the internet in China, a good introduction is the book The Power of the Internet in China : Citizen Activism Online by Guobin Yang, Colombia University Press, 2009 ; see also Pierre Haski, Internet et la Chine, Seuil, 2008.

– For data about the internet in China, I mainly use official numbers given by the International Telecommunications Union in Geneva (ITU). Others numbers come from discussions with executives in Baidu, Sohu, Tencent, Alibaba, Youku etc. In China, more than anywhere else, one has to be cautious about official numbers. In general, professionnals and experts agree on the fact that between 500 and 600 million people are active internet users in China (out of 1.4 billion). This number (564 million at the end of 2012) comes from an industry group, the China Internet Network Information Center, and it is used by the New York Times, The Economist etc. The Boston Consulting Group uses the same number. Some analysts at MGI or Morgan Stanley are more skeptical : they believe Chinese statistics to be exagerated. Among these 500-600 million internet users, 75 % would already be about accessing the internet via smartphone. More than 73 % of the population has a mobile phone (feature or smartphone).

– Bruce Dover, Rupert Murdoch’s China Adventures, How the World’s Most Powerful Media Mogul Lost a Fortune and Found a Wife, Tuttle Publishing, 2008 (see chapters on Murdoch’s internet joint-venture in China).


On Culture and Soft Power in China

– Eric Pfanner, Brian X. Chen, « China Deal Gives Apple Big Market to Court », The New York Times, December 22, 2013

– Hu Jintao’s political report to the 18th National Congress set up « soft power » and « socialist cultural power » as goals for the party. For an official point of view on this matter, as developped among governement circles, see : Guo Jianyu, ed., China’s Cultural Power Strategy, 2012. See also : Zhang Xuecheng, « Accelerating Our Pace in Building a Cultural Strong Nation », People’s Daily/Le Quotidien du Peuple, November 26, 2012.

– Edward Wong, « China’s President Lashes Out at Western Culture », The New York Times, January 3, 2012.

– Séverine Arsène, « Chine : Internet, levier de puissance nationale », Politique Etrangère, 2012, n°2.

Changing Media, Changing China, published by Susan L. Shirk, Oxford University Press, 2011.

– Michael Keane, China’s Creative Clusters : Governance, Human Capital, and Investment, Routledge, 2011.

– Jianying Zha,  Tide Players : The Movers and Shakers of a Rising China, The New Press, 2011.

– Carl Walter, Fraser Howie, Red Capitalism : The Fragile Financial Foundation of China’s Extraordinary Rise., Wiley, 2011.

– Ezra Vogel, Deng Xiaoping and the Transformation of China, Belknap Press, 2011.

– Lucy Montgomery,  China’s Creative Industries : Copyright, Social Network Markets and the Business of Culture in a Digital Age, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2010.

– Bill Emmott, Rivals : How the Power Struggle Between China, India and Japan Will Shape Our Next Decade, Harcourt, 2008.


On Censorship and the « Great Firewall »

– « A Giant Cage », Special report on China and the Internet, The Economist, April 6, 2013

– Xiao Qiang’s blog, China Digital Times, gives inside information about the work of censors within China (Xiao Qiang is a dissident exile at Berkeley, US). He even publishes regular transcriptions of propaganda directives under the heading « Ministry of Truth ».


About Chinese Websites and internet Corporations

– On Alibaba : « The World’s Greatest Bazaar », The Economist, March 23rd, 2013 ; Neil Gough, « Alibaba is said to move toward an IPO in the US », New York Times, September 25, 2013.

– On Baidu : I used the 2011 Annual Report, paper version, p.110 and p.42 of appendices (this document has been given to me by a Baidu spokesperson in Beijing).

On Weibos and Microblogging

– « Use of Microblogs Drops Sharply Amid Crackdown », The New York Times, January 17, 2014 ; Chris Buckley, « Crackdown on Bloggers Is Mounted by China », The New York Times, September 10, 2013 ; Austin Ramzy, « In China’s Campaign Against Bloggers, a Burst of Rumor-Mongering », The New York Times, October 16, 2013 ; Amy Qin, « Better than a Tweet ? In Four Characters, a New World of Meaning », The New York Times, October 27, 2013.

–, « Corporate Presentation », Paper, March, 2012 (document given to the author by Sohu executives).

– Numbers of Weibo accounts : Sina Weibo : 300 million ; Renren Weibo : 300 million ; Sohu Weibo : between 60 and 80 million ; Tencent Weibo : the Weibo application is part of instant messenger, QQ, which has more than 500 million. All these numbers were given to me by executives at Sina, Sohu and Tencent. They might be overestimated for 2 reasons : first of all, numerous Chinese people have several Weibo accounts ; second of all, they might be propaganda of some sort. For example, Renren made a statement in 2011 saying it had grown by 7 million users in the first semester of 2011 ; later, after a verification by US regulators, Renren had to recognize it had grown by only 5 million.


On Chinese Subsidies to the internet Industry

 – Usha Haley and George Haley, Subsidies to Chinese Industry, Oxford University Press, 2013. See also an official audit by the US Congres (Government Accountability Office) on Huawei, 2013 and a study by the independent research firm Fathom China, 2013. These subsidies come through very complex infrastructures, at the national level, as well as the provincial government level.


On Foreign Companies in China

– On Apple in China : Charles Duhigg, Steven Greenhouse, « Electronic Giant Vowing Reforms in China Plants », The New York Times, March 29, 2012 ; Kevin Drew, « Apple’s Chief Visits iPhone Factory in China », The New York Times, March 29, 2012 ; « Apple Hits Back After New York Times Reports ‘Significant Problems’ With Manufacturers », Fox Business, January 27, 2012 ; Charles Duhigg, David Barboza, « In China, Human Costs Are Built Into an iPad », The New York Times, January 25, 2012.


New Censorship in Xi Jinping’s China

– A key reportage on China and how relatives of top leaders have grown rich from ties to real estate magnate : Michael Forsythe, « At China’s Nexus of Power and Cash », New York Times.

– Austin Ramzy, « Xi Jinping calls for Artists to Spread Chinese Values », New York Times.

– A profile of Lu Wei, Chinese Propaganda Chief : « Gregarious and direct : China’s web doorkeeper », New York Times.

– How Xi Jinping, an unremarkable provincial administrator, became China’s most authoritarian leader since Mao : Evan Osnos, « Born Red », New Yorker, April 6, 2015.

– Dan Levin, « China Sounds Alarm on Ideas From West, with a big exception », New York Times.

– Andrew Jacobs, Chris Buckley, « Papa Xi has China public in awe », New York Times.


Emerging internet Markets

– « The World Turned Upside Down: A Special Report on Innovation in Emerging Markets », The Economist, April 17th, 2010.


On the BRICS

– « The BRICs, The Trillion-Dollar Club », The Economist, April 17th, 2010.


Mexico Telecoms

– « Slim’s Chances », The Economist, March 1, 2014.

– On the Mexican Tycoon Carlos Slim (Telmex, Telcel) I recommend the profile by Lawrence Wright, « Slim’s Time », The New Yorker, June 1, 2009.

– Several profiles of Carlos Slim have been published in The Economist as well (February, 4th, 2012, for example).


Internet Access, Mobile Phone Statistics, etc. in Brazil

– On Brazilian statistics, I use a remarkable private and confidential study realized by and, « Pesquisa TIC Domicilios 2011 », 2012 (thanks to TVGlobo’s Chairman who gave me a copy of the report).


On the « C Class » and the New Middle Class (Brazil)

– Francisco H.G. Ferreira, Julian Messina, & al, Economic Mobility and the Rise of the Latin American Middle Class, The World Bank, 2012.

– « The Expanding middle », The Economist, November 10th, 2012.


Global Statistics on Mobile Penetration, Smartphones and the internet  

– International Telecommunication Union, ICT, Facts and Figures, 2013, Geneva, 2013.

– Some important studies are available at the Brazilian Internet Steering Committee ( See also :


Internet Access, Mobile Phone Penetration etc. in Mexico

– Cofetel, the Mexican regulator (the Mexican FCC), has good numbers. See

– « Middle Worth », The Economist, October 12, 2013.


India and Technologies


Internet Statistics, Phone Users, Numbers in India

– Numbers are difficult to get in India and, according to the people I have interviewed at the Center for Internet & Society, in Bengalooru, statistics in terms of penetration, connection, broadband etc. are not reliable. Even mobile penetration is biased, given the high number of SIM cards (an individual may have several SIM cards so the actual numbers are between 10 and 25 % below the current SIM card numbers). Internet literacy is an even more difficult question. Some statistics are available, however, on the Center’s web page (

– The World Bank’s estimations are : Mobile phone penetration is around 72 % (roughly 900 million SIM Cards) ; Broad and (wired) is less than 1 % ; Internet access at home around 4.2 % (mostly by smartphone in 2.5G and 3G services) ; People with internet access (home, smartphone and feature phones, Internet café, Lan houses…) : around 10 %. (Datas : 2011).

– On the phone industry in India, see : Robin Jeffrey and Assa Doron, The Great Indian Phone Book : How Cheap Mobile Phones Change Business, Politics and Daily Life, Hurst, 2013.

– On the internet in India, see Sean McLain, « Doubts Grow Over India’s Tech Ambitions », New York Times, April, 15, 2013 ; see also Ingrid Therwath, « Internet en Inde », in Karyn Poupée, et al, Internet en Asie, Picquier, 2012 (a basic article).

– On the phone industry in India, see « The Screen Revolution », The Economist, March, 16th, 2013.

– Gardiner Harris, « Websites in India Put a Bit of Choice Into Arranged Marriages », The New York Times.

– Vindu Goel, « India Replaces China as Next Big Frontier for U.S. Tech Companies », The New York Times.


Unique ID

– A few books and studies have been written on the Unique ID project. I suggest to read the one by billionnaire Nandan Nilekani who was the project’s founder : Imagining India, Ideas for the New Century, Penguin, 2009 (see especially the chapter « ICT in India »).

– See also, Lydia Polgreen, « Scanning 2.4 Billion Eyes, India Tries to Connect Poor to Growth », New York Times, Septembre 1, 2001.


Statistics on Indian Exportations of Technologies

– Several reports are available at NASSCOM, the National Association of Software & Services Companies (and on its website: Among many documents, see for example, on the next Indian ICT sector, the 2009 McKinsey report.

– See, as well : Kiran Karnik, The Coalition of Competitors: The Story of Nasscom and the IT Industry, Harpers Collins India, 2012.


Smart cities

On Smart Cities

– Anthony M. Townsend, Smart Cities, Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest For a New Utopia, Norton & Company, 2013.

– Adam Greenfield & Nurri Kim, Against the Smart City, Do Projects, 2013.


On the Economic Model of « Triple Helix »

– See Henry Etzkowitz, The Triple Helix, Routlege, 2008 (he focuses in particular on the interactions between government, industry and university to create more innovation).


On Technology Clusters

– The International Association of Science Parks and Areas of Innovation (IASP) has some information on smart cities and technology clusters. (See :


On the internet in Russia

– I mainly use resources and statistics from the web site East-West Digital News (

– In Russia, the 143 million inhabitants are considered mobile connected with a high 180 % SIM cards penetration (among the highest in the world). Broadband is about 13 % (fixed) and Internet access at home around 46 %. And while the country exports few ICT goods (roughly 8 %), 32 % of its exports are for ICT services. Russia overtook Germany in 2011 as the European market with the highest number of unique visitors online.

– A key sector in Russia is the antivirus software branch. Kaspersky, for example, is a key player in this game. See : Noah Shachtman, « Russia’s Top Cyber Sleuth Foils US Spies, Helps Kremlin Pals », Wired, July 23, 2012.


On Skolkovo

– Some articles have been written on Skolkovo. Among them, I suggest : Andrew Kramer, « Innovation, by Order of the Kremlin », The New York Times, April 10, 2010 ; Sophia Kishkovsky, « Russia’s Answer to Harvard Business School : A Break with Tradition », New York Times, October 3, 2010 ; « Can Russia create a new Silicon Valley », The Economist, July 14th, 2012.

On Freedom of the Press and Freedom on the internet in Russia

– Several articles on the dissident blogosphere : Clifford Levy, « Putin’s Iron Grip on Russia Suffocates Opponents », New York Times, February, 24, 2008 ; Julia Ioffe, « Net Impact, One Man’s Cyber-Crusade Against Russian Corruption », The New Yorker, April 4, 2011 (on the blogger Alexey Navalny) ; and a remarkable article by David Remnick, « The Civil Archipelago, How Far Can the Resistance to Vladimir Putin Go ? », The New Yorker, December, 19, 2011. See also : Julien Nocetti, « Russie : le Web réinvente-t-il la politique ? », Politique étrangère, 2012.

– Pierre Haski, « The Red Web » : « Snowden est-il de nouveau manipulé ? », Rue 89.

– Andrei Soldatov and Irina Borogan, The Red Web: The Struggle Between Russia’s Digital Dictators and the New Online Revolutionaries, Public Affairs 2015


On Konza City and Kenya Phone Penetration

– « The Next Frontier », The Economist, February 16, 2013.

– David Smith, Toby Shapshak, «  Digital Africa Lights Up with Money, Maps and Markets », The Guardian, October 31, 2012.

– On Kenya, I use statistics from the Safaricom mobile phone operator. There are fewer than 600,000. On mobile, 30 million SIM cards are registered (for 42 millions inhabitants). 99 % of SIM cards and lines are prepaid. Among mobile phones, smartphones represent at best, 5-10 %.

– The World Bank & International Telecommunication Union evaluate the mobile penetration in Kenya at around 68 % of the population. Internet acces is around 0.1 % (but smartphones are coming, says ITU).


On Israel « Start-Up Nation »

– Marie de Vergès, « Tsahal, l’école de la Start-up », Le Monde, February 11, 2014.

– Dan Senor and Saul Singer, Start-Up Nation, The Story of Israel’s Economic Miracle, Twelve, 2009.

– Danna Harman, « The Technion : Israel’s Hard Drive », New York Times, 12 avril 2013.

– Shlomo Maital, « Needed : Goliaths instead of Davids », The Jerusalem Report.


On Submarine Fiber Optic Cable

– Andrew Blum, Tubes, A Journey to the Center of the Internet, Ecco, 2012.


On Slums and Ghettos in Kenya

– « Improving the Lives of Slum Dwellers Through Unnovative uses of ICT », ITU News, October 2012.

– Povertymatters Blog, « E-Readers Kindle Enthusiasm for Learning Among Children in Kenya », The Guardian, 2012.

– On MPesa service : Alex Perry, « Silicon Savanna : Mobile Phones Transform Africa », Time, June 30, 2011 ;

Digital Inclusion, Revitalization through ICT in Brazil

– On IBM’s smart city project for Rio de Janeiro and its favelas : Natasha Singer, « Mission Control, Built for Cities », New York Times, March 3, 2012.

– On digital inclusion, I recommend the methodology and conclusions of the CDI in Brazil ( Rodrigo Bajo, from CDI, knows this sector well and produced valuable studies.

– Accurate studies and numbers and also available at the Brazilian Internet Steering Committee ( See also :

On Access to the internet in the Favelas

– « Improving the Lives of Slum Dwellers through Innovative Uses of ICT », ITU News, 2012.

– On Brazil’s favelas : Mira Olson, « Viva Favela’s Internet Media Evolution »,, June 8, 2010 ; Michael Kerlin, « Rio’s Culturally Connected Favelas »,, October 4, 2011 ; Marina Lemle, « Online in the Slums : Internet Cafes Face Challenges in Brazil »,, February 22, 2012.

– I use a (confidential) TV Globo study on internet access in Brazil : 96 % of upper class and 76 % of upper middle class families have access to the internet at home ; but only 35 % of the middle class and 5 % of the lower class. In Brazil, 34 % of users still access the internet through cybercafes, LAN houses or social centers. As would be expected,fewer favela inhabitants access the internet at home and more access through  cybercafes or LAN houses. (TV Globo, 2012).

On Narco-trafficking

– Many books have been written. I mainly used on this topic : Ed Vulliamy, Amexica, War Along the Borderline, Picador, 2011. And also : Ioan Grillo, El Narco : Inside Mexico’s Criminal Insurgency, Bloomsbury, 2012.

On How the internet is Used Against or by Narcos

– Damien Cave, « Mexico Turns to Social Media for Information and Survival », New York Times, September 24, 2011.


Islam and the internet

On the internet in the Muslim World

– Dale Eickelman, Jon Anderson, dir., New Media in the Muslim World, The Emerging Public Sphere, Indiana University Press, 2003.

– Other readings : Olivier Roy, L’Islam mondialisé, Seuil, 2002.


Internet in Gaza

– On Gaza, I use to some extent a report that I wrote for « La vie “normale” à Gaza », July, 2013.


Media and the Arab World

– Riz Khan, Al Waleed, Businessman Billionnaire Prince, ed. William Morrow, 2005 (Official biography of Prince Al Waleed).

– On Al Jazeera and the internet : Théo Corbucci, « De Doha à Sarajevo : quelle stratégie pour Al Jazeera ? », La nouvelle revue géopolitique, pp. 35-39, automne 2013, n°123.


On Hezbollah

– I found this book to be edifying : Thanassis Cambanis, A Privilege to Die, Inside Hezbollah’s Legions and their Endless War Against Israel, Free Press, 2010.

– See also : Neil MacFarquhar, The Media Relations Department of Hizbollah Wishes you a Happy Birhday : Unexpected Encounters in the Changing Middle East, 2009, 387 p ; Hizbollah: Rebel Without a Cause? by the International Crisis Group, a briefing paper, July 30, 2003 ; Amal Saad-Ghorayeb, Hizbu’llah: Politics and Religion, Pluto, 254 pp. ; « Should Hezbollah Be Next ? » by Daniel Byman, Foreign Affairs, November/December 2003

– Anne Barnard,  « Hezbollah Appears to Acknowledge a Spy at the Top », The New York Times


On Iran and the Internet

– Annabelle Sreberny and Gholam Khiabany, Blogistan, The Internet and Politics in Iran, I.B. Tauris, 2010.

– Cyrus Farivar, The Internet of Elsewhere, The Emergent Effects of a Wired World, Rutgers University press, 2011 (This book, studies the internet in Estonia, Iran, Senegal and South Korea).

– James Harkin, « Cyber-Con »,  London Review of Books, December 11, 2010.

– On the situation of bloggers in Iran, see : « Situation on Human Rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran », an Official Report of the Secretary General, United Nations/General Assembly (see section 30, p. 11).

– On Iran, a few paragraphs of this sub-chapter have been published before in F. Martel, Global Gay, Comment la Révolution gay change le monde, Flammarion, 2013 (see chapter 8, « En Iran, nous n’avons pas d’homosexuels »).

– Thomas Erdbrink, « Tehran Unfetters Cellphones, and the Pictures Start Flowing », The New York Times

– Setareh Derakhshesh, « Breaking the Law to Go Online in Iran », The New York Times


On the Online Ummah

– See « The Online Ummah, Islam and Technology », The Economist, August 18th, 2012.


On Al Azhar University

– Karl Vick & Ashraf Khalil, « Faith and the Campus », Time, June 10, 2013.


On the Muslim Brotherhood and Egypt « Revolution »

– Kareem Fahim, « The Muslim Brotherhood, Back in a Fight to Survive », The New York Times, January 5, 2014 ; Robert F. Worth, « A Familiar Role for Muslim Brotherhood : Opposition », The New York Times, July 28, 2013.

– Peter Hessler, « Big Brothers – Where is the Muslim Brotherhood leading Egypt ? », The New Yorker, January 14, 2013 (a prophetic article) ; and, less interesting : Yasmine El Rashidi, « Egypt : The Rule of the Brotherhood », The New York Review of Books, February 7, 2013.

– Mike Giglio, « The Facebook Freedom Fighter », Newsweek, February 21, 2011.

– David Kirkpatrick & David Sanger, « A Tunisian-Egyptian Link That Shook Arab History », New York Times, February 14, 2011.

On the internet in Algeria

– See the special issue of El Watan : « Internet sous surveillance », May 21, 2010 (special report).


On the Debate About the Democratization through internet

– Michael Gladwell, « Small Change, Why the Revolution will Not Be Tweeted », The New Yorker, Oct 4, 2010.

– For a different point of view, see one of the bible of the social media movement : Clay Shirky, Here Comes Everybody, The Power of organizing without organizations, Penguin Press, 2008

– Edward Wyatt, « Obama’s Net Neutrality Bid Divides Civil Rights Groups », The New York Times.

– Edward Wyatt, « F.C.C Considering Hybrid Regulatory Approach to Net Neutrality », The New York Times

– Edward Wyatt, « Obama and Scalia, United on Broadbands as a Utility », The New York Times

– Edward Wyatt, « Obama Asks F.C.C to Adopt Tough Net Neutrality Rules », The New York Times

– The Editorial Board, « President Obama : No Internet Fast Lanes », The New York Times.


On Comcast – Time Warner Cable Merger

– David Carr, « Stealthily, Comcast Fortifies Its Arsenal », The New York Times, February 16, 2014 ; Farhad Manjoo, « Comcast vs. the Cord Cutters », The New York Times, February 15, 2014 ; The Editorial Board, « If a Cable Giant Becomes Bigger », The New York Times, February 13, 2014 ; Michael J. De La Merced, Bill Carter, « For Comcast, Daring Deals to Expand Its Reach Across Industries », The New York Times, February 13, 2014.


On US Tax Avoidance by the (So-Called) GAFA

– Nelson D. Schwartz and Charles Duhigg, « Apple’s Web of Tax Shelters Saved It Billions, Panel Finds », New York Times, May 20, 2013.

On State Sales Taxes and Tax Case from Online Merchants

– Adam Liptak, « Justices Pass on Tax Case From Online Merchants », New York Times, December 2, 2013.

– Gregory Ferenstein, « U.S. Senate approves Proposed Internet Sales Tax », TechCrunch, March, 23, 2013 ; See also the editorial : « A Season for Sales Taxes », New York Times, December 9, 2013.

– Robert Barnes, « Supreme Court declines case on making online retailers collect sales taxes« , The Washington Post, December 2, 2013.

– Marcus Wohlsen, « Despite Sales Tax Slap, Amazon Could Still Crush Brick-And-Mortar », Wired, Jan. 18, 2013.

On Immigration Law, « High-Skilled Visas » (and « Start-Up Visas »)

– A large debate exists in the U.S. on how to encourage foreign « high-skilled » engineers, students and entrepreneurs to enter and stay in the U.S. (H-1 B visas and proposal for a new specific visa). See : Somini Sengupta, « Silicon Valley and Immigrant Groups Find Common Case », New York Times, February 12, 2013 ; Somini Sengupta & Eric Lipton, « Silicon Valley Group’s Political Effort Cases Uproar », New York Times, May 8, 2013 ; Somini Sengupta, « Countries Seek Entrepreneurs From Silicon Valley », New York Times, June 5, 2013 ; Somini Sengupta, « A Bill Allowing More Foreign Workers Stirs a Tech Debate », New York Times, June 27, 2013 ; « The Jobs Machine: Immigration and America’s High-Tech Industry », The Economist, April 13th 2013 ; and George Packer, « Change the World: Silicon Valley Transfers its Slogans and its Money to the Realm of Politics », New Yorker, May, 27, 2013.

– For an overview of the same issue : Ian Goldin, Geoffrey Cameron and Meera Balarajan, Exceptional People : How Migration Shaped Our World and Will Define Our Future., Princeton University Press ; Vivek Wadhwa, The Immigrant Exodus: Why America is Losing the Global Race to Capture Entrepreneurial Talent, Wharton Digital Press, 2012.

– Vindu Goel, « Workers in Silicon Valley Weigh In on Obama’s Immigration Action », The New York Times

On Antitrust Think Tanks, Watchdogs and Advocacy Groups

– The Center for Public Integrity follow media groups and their potential conflict of interests:

– The Center for Digital Democracy is a watchdog group on media and concentration:

– Media Access Project is based on antitrusts in media:

On Antitrust Lawyers and Gary Reback

– Gary L. Reback, Free the Market ! Why Only Government Can Keep the Marketplace Competitive, Portfolio, 2009.

– Steve Lohr, « Onetime Allies in Antitrust Part Ways Over Google », New York Times, December 16, 2012 (about Gary Reback and Susan A. Creighton). See also : James Temple, « Antitrust Bulldog Gary Reback Pushes Google Probe », San Francisco Chronicle, January 24, 2011.

– For another point of view see articles on pro-business lawyers: Nick Wingfield & Claire Cain Miller, « A Political Brawler, Now Battling for Microsoft », New York Times, December 15, 2012.


On Pro-GAFA Lobbies

– Several key articles have been written on how Google, Amazon etc. are lobbying Washington. See for example : Edward Wyatt, « Google’s Washington Insider », New York Times, June 2, 2013 ; Somini Sengupta, « Tech Giants Brace for more Scrutiny from Regulators », New York Times, January 1, 2013.

On Balkanization of the internet and internet Freedom

– Rebecca MacKinnon, Consent of the Networked, The Worldwide Struggle for internet Freedom, Basic Books, 2012.

– « Free to Choose », The Economist, October 6, 2012.

On Edward Snowden & Whistle-Blowers

– About Edward Snowden: See the New York Times’ editorial : « Edward Snowden, Whistle-Blower », New York Times, January 1, 2014 ; Glenn Greenwald, No Place to Hide, Edward Snowden, the NSA, and the US Surveillance State, Metropolitan Books, 2014.

– Among thousands of articles about the NSA scandal, I have used: Adam Liptak, Michael S. Schmidt, « Judge Upholds N.S.A.’s Bulk Collection of Data on Calls », The New York Times, December 27, 2013 ; Charlie Savage, « Judge Questions Legality of N.S.A. Phone Records », The New York Times, December 16, 2013 ; Nicole Perlroth, Vindu Goel, « Internet Firms Step Up Efforts to Stop Spying », The New York Times, December 5, 2013.

– On Hackers: Misha Glenny, DarkMarket : Cyberthieves, Cybercops and You, Knopf, 2011 ; Kevin Mitnick, with William L. Simon, Ghost in the Wires : My Adventures as the World’s Most Wanted Hacker, Back Bay Books, 2012 ; Parmy Olson, We Are Anonymous : Inside the Hacker World of LulzSec, Anonymous, and the Global Cyber Insurgency, Back Bay Books, 2013 ; Sue Halpern, « Are Hackers Heroes ? », The New York Review of Books, September 27, 2012 ; Evgeny Morozov, « And the Firewalls Came Tumbling Down », The New York Times, October 12, 2012.


International internet Regulations


(United Nations, Europe)

On ICANN and International Union Telecommunications

– Overview of the debate : Bertrand de La Chapelle, « Gouvernance Internet : tensions actuelles et futurs possibles », Politique Étrangère, Fevrier 2012 ; Eric Pfanner, « Regulating the Internet in a Multifaceted World », New York Times, June 26, 2011.

– On ICANN : Edward Wyatt, « U.S. to Cede Its Oversight of Addresses on Internet », New York Times, March 14, 2014 ; New York Times’ editorial : « Updating Internet Governance », New York Times, March 18, 2014 ;

– On IUT: Eric Pfanner, « U.S. Rejects Telecommunications Treaty », New York Times, December 13, 2012.


On the International Debate on internet Regulations

– Eric Sadin, L’humanité augmentée : L’administration numérique du monde, Editions L’échappée, 2013.

– Rebecca MacKinnon, Consent of the Networked, The Worldwide Struggle for internet Freedom, Basic Books, 2012.

– Michael Joseph Gross, « World War 3.0 », Vanity Fair, May 2012.

– Jovan Kurbalija, An Introduction to Internet Governance, Publisher : DiploFoundation, 5th edition, 2012.


Smart Curation

(Culture, Art, Criticism Media & the internets)

On Digital Arts and Arts in the age of Internet

The bibliography on arts and the internets is pretty large. I mention here the books I have used or read.

– Gilles Deleuze, Mille Plateaux, Editions de Minuit, 1980 (trans. in english by University of Minnesota Press, in 1987 under the title : One Thousand Plateaus).

– Christiane Paul, L’Art numérique, Thames & Hudson, 2008.

– Nicolas Bourriaud, Esthétique relationnelle, Les Presses du Réel, 1998 (an interesting essay on contemporary and visiual arts, less acute on digital arts).

– Joline Blais & Jon Ippolito, At the edge of art, Thames & Hudson.

– Richard Colson, The Fundamentals of Digital Art, Ava, 2007.

– Bruce Wands, L’Art à l’ère numérique, Thames & Hudson, 2007.

– Edmond Couchot, Norbert Hillaire, L’Art numérique, Champs-Flammarion, 2009.

– Florent Aziosmanoff, Living Art, L’Art numérique, CNRS Editions, 2010.
– Casey Newton, « How one of the best films at Sundance was shot using an iPhone 5S« , The Verge, 02/28/16

– Nick Paumgarten, « We Are a Camera », The New Yorker


On the Non-Profit Art and Cultural Sector in the US

– On the 501c3 non-profit sector, especially in the arts and culture, I use my previous book : De la Culture en Amérique, Gallimard, 2006. And also my PhD dissertation: F. Martel, Politique publique, philanthropie privée et intérêt général dans le système culturel américain (PhD directed by Pierre Rosanvallon ; 6 vol., 3 888 p., EHESS, 2006 ; it contains a 140 page bibliography, 434 original documents from the US National Archives ; PhD dissertation available at the EHESS library, Paris, and at the Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Paris).

– On the adaptation of the non-profit art sector to the internet, see : Jane L. Levere, « If you can’t make it to the lecture », New York Times, March 19, 2014.

On Virtual Orchestras ou Museums

– On virtual museums, see : Anand Giridharadas, « Museums See Different Virtues in Virtual Worlds », New York Times, Aug. 7, 2014.

– On Moocs’ arts class, see : Robin Pogrebin, « Not Digital Art, but Art Learned Digitally », New York Times, March 19, 2015.

– Ken Johnson, « No Detail Goes Unnoticed When Art Is a Click Away », The New York Times
– Jane L. Levere, « If You Can’t Make It to the Lecture », The New York Times

– Steve Lohr, « Museums Morph Digitally », The New York Times

– Anand Giridharadas, « Museums See Different Virtues in Vitural Worlds », The New York Times


On the Copyright Debate

– Lawrence Lessig, The Future of Ideas: the Fate of the Commons in a Connected World, Random House, 2001.

Free Culture: How Big Medias Uses Technology and the Law to Lock Down Culture and Control Creativity, Penguin Press, 2004.

Remix: Making Art and Commerce Thrive in the Hybrid Economy, Penguin Press, 2008.

— « Off the Grid, The Superstar Law Professor is Marching across New Hampshire to Save Democracy. Are You with Him ? », interview by Simon Van Zuylen-Wood, The New Republic, Feb 5, 2014.

On Acceleration and Serendipity

– Hartmut Rosa, Accélération, Un critique sociale du temps, La Découverte, 2010.

– The term « serendipity/sérendipité » has a French background: it is used in Voltaire’s Zadig, in the third chapter. Before, it was used in the Persian novel The Three Princes of Serendip.


On Mainstream Culture and the internet

– Alice E. Marwick, Status Update, Celebrity, Publicity, and Branding in the Social Media Age, Yale University Press, November 1, 2013.

– Chris Anderson, Free, The Future of a Radical Price, Hyperion, 2009.


On the Music Industry

An expanded bibliography on the music industry and its future is available on, related to my previous book Mainstream. Hundreds of books and articles’ references are available for free on a PDF document. Among the more recent books to mention, I would like to mention :

– John Seabrook, « The Song Machine, Inside the Hit Factory, Norton & Company, 2015 (a pretty much pessimistic book).

– Steven Johnson, « The Creative Apocalypse That Wasn’t », New York Times, Aug. 19, 2015 (a totally opposite point of view to Seabrook : Steven Johnson says that in the digital economy, it was supposed to be impossible to make money by making art ; instead, creative careers
are thriving but in complicated and unexpected ways.)


On Music and Film Piracy Statistics

– For music, see: « The Media Piracy Report » from The American Assembly at Colombia University, 2011.

– For movies, see the MPAA’s website :

– The Department of Commerce, Internet Policy Task Force, Copyright Policy, Creativity, and Innovation in the Digital Economy, July 2013, 122 p. An official document on piracy infringement by the Federal government :

On Radio and the Future of Radio

– Gabriel Rossman, Climbing the Charts, What Radio Airplay Tells us About the Diffusion of Innovation, Princeton University Press, 2012.

– Alec Foege, Right of the Dial, The Rise of Clear Channel and the Fall of Commercial Radio, Faber & Faber, 2008.

– Sarah Larson, « “Invisibilia” and the evolving art of radio », New Yorker, Jan. 21, 2015 (This article analyses the future of podcast, and discusses « American Life » and « RadioLab » history and podcast’s series « Invisibilia » and « Serial »).

– On Radio’s Regulation: « FCC Chief Backs XM-Sirius Deal », Associated Press, June 16, 2008.

– You can also see my article in french : « Voici les treize mutations qui sont en train de révolutionner la radio » 29 jan. 2016


On Amazon

– Brad Stone, The Everything Store, Jeff Bezos and the Age of Amazon, Little, Brown and Company, 2013 (a quasi-authorized biography of Jeff Bezos ; there is also information about Netflix and Dropbox, as well as the CIA and the NSA, using the Amazon Web Services cloud).

– Michiko Kakutani, « Selling as Hard as He can », The New York Times, October 28, 2013 ; Duff McDonald, « One-Click Wonder », The New York Times, November 1, 2013 (about the book by Brad Stone).

– Mike Hale, « Techies Striving for the Next Big Thing », The New York Times, November 20, 2013.

– David Care, « With ‘Alpha House’ Amazon Makes Bid for Living Room Screens and Beyond », The New York Times, November 4, 2013.

– Illimited subscriptions for books, see : Molly Wood, « Aiming to Be the Netflix of Books », New York Times, Aug 6, 2014.


On Netflix

– Here is the key article about Netflix : Ken Auletta, « Outside the Box », The New Yorker, February 3, 2014.

– Lorne Manly, « Jenji Kohan, Creator of Orange is the New Black », The New York Times, December 26, 2013.

– Tim Wu, « Niche is the New Mass », The New Republic, December 9, 2013.

– Michael Cieply, « The Weinstein Company, Seeking Hits, Shifts to TV », The New York Times, November 24, 2013.

– « Net Flicks », The Economist,  February 2, 2013.

– On release windows : Netflix is, basically, a « re-run TV » service. Mainstream Hollywood movies are, in general, released in theaters first for an exclusive « window » of approximatively 90 days (between 3 and 4 months in general). Then, depending on studios and films, they are released as DVD and « on demand » VOD (VOD with payment by film, not by subscription). They  later arrive on « Pay TV » and SVOD (subscription VOD such as Netflix) approximatively 120 days to 3 years after the theater release window (between 4 and 12 months – and sometimes until 36 months). All these release window arrangements are decided for each movie by the studios themselves (and not by law, as in France). Delays may change from one film to another. Netflix has made a push in the last couple of years for « shrinking windows », and expects to release films 45 days after theater release, but studios and theaters owners don’t agree. We are seeing a « collapsing release window model » and an accelerating release from studios to SVOD.

For example, if we follow some new films on Netflix, as in March 2014, here, we are able to see different paterns for their release windows on Netflix : 46 weeks or 11.5 months (for the movie Mud), 41 weeks or 10 months (The Prey), 32 weeks or 8 months (Paranoia), 20 weeks or 5 months (Big Sur), 17 weeks or 4.5 months (Contracted). There are films that were released on Netflix before that, but they are generally either indie films or « crap ». On the other hand, in March 2014, Netflix released Gattaca, a film that came out 17 years ago! On average, Netflix releases MPAA movies 10-14 months after theater release and up to 36 months for Hollywood blockbusters.

For sure, Netflix is pushing the boundaries to get better « release windows » (see Variety :  ; and see the point of view of Reed Hastings, Netflix’s CEO: « Internet Tolls And The Case For Strong Net Neutrality », Netflix blog, March 20, 2014).

– See also this book : Gina Keating, Netflixed : The Epic battle for America’s Eyeballs, Portfolio Trade, 2013.

– Brian Stelter, « Hulu, Billed as Tomorrow’s TV, Looks Boxed In », The New York Times, July 23, 2011.


On Youtube

– Claire Cain Miller, « Youtube to Serve Niche Tastes by Adding Channels », The New York Times, October 7, 2012.

– John Seabrook, « Streaming Dreams, Youtube Turns Pro », The New Yorker, January 16, 2012.

– Lucie Robequain, David Barroux, « Les nouveaux millionnaires de Youtube », Les Echos, September, 2010.

– Laura M. Holson, « Hollywood Asks Youtube : Friend or Foe ? », The New York Times, January 15, 2007. (This article from 2007 already shows the coming Hollywood-Youtube battle)

– Belinda Luscombe, « Youtube’s view master », Time.

– Jonathan Mahler, « YouTube’s Chief, Hitting a New play button », The New York Times.



On Business Models in the Music Industry

– A key article on the music industry and the digital economy and why creative careers are thriving thanks to the Internet : Steven Johnson, « The creative apocalypse that wasn’t », New York Times.

– For general statistics on music sales, I use information from the websites DigitalMusicNews and Billboard, and from studies by Nielsen SoundScan GfK.

– Music sales and internet revolution see : Eric Pfanner, « Music Industry Sales Rise, and Digital Revenue Gets the Credit », New York Times, February 26, 2013.

– An interesting article on Justin Bieber’s internet strategy : Lizzie Widdicombe, « Teen Titan, The Man Who Made Justin Bieber », New York Times, September 3, 2012.

– Ben Sisario, « Court Gives a Victory to Pandora Over Licensing Streaming Music », New York Times, September 18, 2013.



– An interesting article about Spotify’s Discover Weekly Playlists : « The magic that makes Spotify’s Discover Weekly playlists so damn good » in Quartz.

– Farhad Manjoo, « Spotify Sees a Future Where Music Genres Don’t Really Matter », New York Times.

– The case about Taylor Swift : Ben Sisario, « Sales of Taylor Swift’s 1989 Intensify Streaming Debate », New York Times.

– YouTube introduces YouTube Music Key against Spotify : « YouTune Music Key Is Introduced as New Rival in Streaming », by Ben Sisario, in the New York Times.



– Ben Sisario, « Popular and Free, SoundCloud is Now Ready for Ads », New York Times.

– Ben Sisario, « SoundCloud Starts Subscription Plan, Taking On Spotify and Apple », New York Times.


On « Smart Curation », Conversations, Recommendations and Algorithms

– Steven Rosenbaum, Curation Nation, Why the Future of Content is Context, McGraw Hill, 2011. (An interesting book on « curation » and how it could save the web).

– Henry Jenkins, Joshua Green & Sam Ford, Spreadable Media, Creating Value and Meaning in a Networked Culture, New York University Press, 2013.

– Molly Wood, « Making Adjustments in the Search for the Perfect News Feed », New York Times, Sept 24, 2014 (M. Wood discusses the Facebook & Twitter algorithms).

– Michael Erard, « The Art of the Amateur Online Review », The New York Times.


On specifics recommendations

– On Amazon’s recommendation system, see : George Packer, « Cheap Words. Amazon is good for customers. But is it good for books ? », The New Yorker, Feb 17, 2014.

– On Facebook & Facebook recommendations system, see : Tom Standage, Writing on the Wall, Social Media. The First 2,000 Years, Bloomsbury, 2013 ; « The Value of Friendship », The Economist, February 4th, 2012 ; David Kushner, « Facebook Philosophy: Move Fast and Break Things. Hacker Culture Is Alive and Well at Facebook », Spectrum/IEEE ; Miguel Helft and matt Richtel, « Facebook Prepares to Add Friends in Washington », New York Times, March 28, 2011. Sur les régulations et Facebook, voir : Somini Sengupta, « FTC Settles Privacy Issue at Facebook », New York Times, November 29, 2011 ; Vindu Goel and Edward Wyatt, « Facebook Privacy Change is Subject of FTC Inquiry », New York Times, September 11, 2013. (See also, Molly Wood, « Making Adjustments in the Search for the Perfect News Feed », art. cit.).

– On Twitter’s recommendation, see : Nick Bilton, Hatching Twitter, A True Story of Money, Power, Friendship and Betrayal, Portfolio/Penguin, 2013 ; Steven Levy, « The Many Sides of Jack Dorsey », Wired, July 2012. Et sur Vine, lié à Twitter, voir : Mat Honan, « Loopers : The Founders of Vine talk about their 6-Second Sensation », Wired, July 2013.

– On Tumblr’s recommendation, see: Leslie Kaufman, « Tumblr to End Storyboard and Dismiss 3 Employees », New York Times, April 10, 2013 ; Rob Walker, « Can Tumblr’s David Karp Embrace Ads Without Selling Out ? », New York Times, July 16, 2012.

– On TV’s recommendation: Mike Proulx and Stacey Shepatin, Social TV, How Marketers Can Reach and Engage Audiences by Connecting Television to the Web, Social Media, and Mobile, publisher: John Wiley & Sons, 2012 ; Brian X. Chen, Nick Wingfield, « ‘Smart TVs’ Are Next Bet for Makers as Sales Languish », The New York Times, January 6, 2014 ; Willa Paskin, « Network TV is Broken: So How Does Shonda Rhimes Keep Making Hits ? », New York Times, May 9, 2013 ; Kelefa Sanneh, « Twenty-Four-Hour Party People. MSNBC Tries to Figure out What Liberals Really Want », New Yorker, September 2, 2013.

– On Netflix’ recommendation algorithm: Alexis Madrigal, « How Netflix Reverse Engineered Hollywood », The Atlantic, Jan 2, 2014 (this article shows how Netflix divided Hollywood movies in 76 897 micro-genres ; it describes also how The Atlantic have been able to discover, thanks to Film’s URL on Netflix, the micro-genres list).


On the future of traditional cultural criticism

– Alexandra Molotkow, « School Music Snob Is the Least Cool Kid on Twitter », New York Times, April 8, 2012.

– Adam Kirsch, Anna Holmes, « How Has Twitter Changed the Role of the Literary Critic ? », New York Times, Oct 29, 2013.

– Motoko Rich, « Washington Post’s Book World Goes Out of Print as a Separate Section », New York Times, Jan 29, 2009 ; Motoko Rich, « Are Book Reviewers Out of Print ? », New York Times, May 2, 2007 ; Steve Wasserman, « Goodbye to All That », Columbia Journalism Review, Oct 2007.

– William Skidelsky, « Critical Condition », Prospect Magazine, Feb 2008. (article sur l’affaiblissement de la critique de livres et le « literary journalism »).

– David Carr, « Now on the Endangered Species List : Movie Critics in Print », New York Times, April 1, 2008.

– Bill Keller, « All the Aggregation That’s Fit to Aggregate », New York Times,

March 10, 2011. (An attack by the former editor of the New York Times against, among others, Ariana Huffington’s Huffington Post).

– Alex Ross, « The Classical Cloud », New Yorker, Sept 8, 2014 (an article about the future of classical recorded music in a time of digitalization, recommendation and algorithms).

– Michael Roston, « If a tweet worked once, send it again – and other lessons from the New York Times’ social media desk », New York Times, Jan. 6, 2014 (an inside view of the NYT’s strategy on Twitter).

– Dwight Garner, « Creative Writing, via a Workshop or the Big City. MFA vs. NYC : The Two Cultures of American Fiction », New York Times, Feb. 25, 2014. (An article about the controversial paper by Chad Harbach, published in the journal n + 1, on the future of creative writing in the US)


On prescription and new trend-setters

– On Gawker, see: Carla Blumenkranz, « Gawker : 2002-2007 », n+1, Winter 2008 ; Ben McGrath, « Search and Destroy, Nick Denton’s blog empire », New Yorker, Oc. 18, 2010 ; Jay Dixit, « The Duel for the Dirt », New York Times, Jan. 30, 2005 ; Warren St. John, « A New York State of Blog », New York Times, May 18, 2003 ; Justin Miller, « Gawker Changed the Internet. Can it Change Workplace Organizing ? », The American Prospect, May 28, 2015 ; Jonathan Mahler, « Gawker’s Moment of Truth », New York Times, June 12, 2015.

– Andrew Marantz, « The Virologist », The New Yorker, Jan 5, 2015 (a key article about Emerson Spartz, startuper who founded Dose, OMG Facts, GivesMeHope etc.)

– Jeff Meeds, « The New Tastemakers », New York Times, Sept 3, 2006.

– Jon Pareles, « 2006, Brought to You by You », New York Times, Dec 10, 2006.

– Somini Sengupta, Ben Sisario, « Facebook as Tastemaker », New York Times, Sept 22, 2011.

– On Wattpad, a Facebook for books, see : « Wattpad, le club en ligne des adolescentes », Fev 7, 2015,

– On Mark Zuckerberg new Facebook book review page, see : Lizzie Widdicombe, « The Zuckerberg Bump », The New Yorker, Jan 19, 2015 ; Anna Wiener, « Mark Zuckerberg is Not Oprah », Gawker, Sept 1, 2015.


On the Globalization and the Localization of Music

– See: Fernando Ferreira & Joel Waldfogel, « Pop Internationalism : Has a Half Century of World Music Trade Displaced Local Culture ? », The Economic Journal, June 2013. (The study has been made on 1.2 million chart entries in 22 countries, covering 68,283 songs and 23,377 artists).

– On classical music and the internet, see: Alex Ross, « The Well-Tempered Web », The New Yorker, October 22, 2007. I also enjoyed reading Alex Ross, The Rest is Noise, Listening to the Twentieth Century, Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, 2007 (see: last chapter and conclusion).

– On e-commerce in India see: Vikas Bajaj, « In India, Online Retailers Take a New Tack », New York Times, September 14, 2011.


On Advertising in the Digital Age

Thousands of articles are available on this vast topic. I mention here only books and articles that I have read and used:

– Leslie Kaufman, « Seeking a Lead on News, Network Turns to Data-Mining Media Group », The New York Times, February 23, 2014.

– « Omnipotent or Omnishambles ? », The Economist, August 3rd 2013.

– Melinda F. Emerson, « E-Commerce Company Learns to Sell Directly on Facebook »,  The New York Times, July 26, 2013.
– Tanzina Vega, «  Two Ad Giants Chasing Google in Merger Deal », The New York Times, July 28, 2013.

– Jeffrey Rosen, « Who Do Online Advertisers Think You Are ? », The New York Times, November 30, 2012.
– Jenna Wortham, « Search Takes a Social Turn », The New York Times, September 13, 2010.

– Stuart Elliott, Advertising Week 2014 : « Exploring the Future of Television », The New York Times
– Vindu Goel, « Facebook Tries to Explain Its Privacy Settings but Advertising Still Rules », The New York Times.


On Crowdfunding

– Alina Tugend, « Crowdfunding’s Effect on Venerable Nonprofits Raises Concern », New York Times, February 7, 2014 ; Amy Cortese, « The Crowdfunding Crowd in Anxious », New York Times, January 5, 2013.

Thousands of articles are available on this vast topic. I mention here only books and articles that I have read and used:

– I recommend also an interesting discussion between Bill Keller (former editor of the New York Times) and Glenn Greenwald : « Is Glenn Greenwald the Future of News ? », New York Times, October 27, 2013.

– On « long-form journalism » : Matt Richtel, « A Founder of Twitter Goes Long », New York Times, November 9, 2013.

– About Arianna Huffington and The Huffington Post : Andrew Goldman, « Arianna Huffington’s Next Move », The New York Times, April 1, 2011 ; David Segal, « Arianna Huffington’s Improbable, Insatiable Content Machine », New York Times, 30 June, 2015.

– Joshua Benton, « The leaked New York Times innovation report is one of the key documents of this media age »,

– David Segal, « Arianna Huffington’s Improbable, Insatiable Content Machine », The New York Times.


On Virtual Reality (VR), Augmented Reality (AR) & Artificial Intelligence (AI)

– Chris Suellentrop, « Virtual Reality Is Here. Can We Play With It ? » The New York Times, 03/23/2014

– « Grand illusions » The Economist

– Raffi Khatchadourian, « The Doomsday Invention », The New Yorker



On Social TV and streaming video

On Social TV in General

– A good overview on the subject is: Mike Proulx and Stacey Shepatin, Social TV, How Marketers Can Reach and Engage Audiences by Connecting Television to the Web, Social Media, and Mobile, publisher: John Wiley & Sons, 2012 (the book is interesting though tedious).


On the Future of TV

– Brian X. Chen, Nick Wingfield, « ‘Smart TVs’ Are Next Bet for Makers as Sales Languish », The New York Times, January 6, 2014.

– Willa Paskin, « Network TV is Broken: So How Does Shonda Rhimes Keep Making Hits ? », New York Times, May 9, 2013.

– Kelefa Sanneh, « Twenty-Four-Hour Party People. MSNBC Tries to Figure out What Liberals Really Want », New Yorker, September 2, 2013.


On the Online Ad Market in the MENA Region

– Digital Broadcast Middle East is a well informed website. ArabNet Digital Summit provides good numbers as well. I use also confidential studies by industry leaders and digital experts.


On the Box Office and Movie Industry Statistics

– I use the MPAA’s statistics for US and International Box Office. For other markets, see Mainstream and its bibliography on


On Social TV and Video Streaming

– Tad Friend, « Hollywood and Vine », The New Yorker.

– Vindu Goel, « Twitter and Facebook Wield Little Influence on TV Watching », The New York Times.

– David Carr, « The Stream Finally Cracks the Dam of Cable TV », The New York Time.

– Mike Isaac and Vindu Goel, « As Twitter Introduces Periscope, Tech Titans Bet on Live Streaming Video », The New York Times


Video Games

On US Direct and Indirect Subsidies to the Video Game Industry

– David Kocieniewski, « Rich Tax Breaks Bolster Makers of Video Games », New York Times, September 10, 2011.

– Seth Schiesel, « Supreme Court Has Ruled: Now Games Have a Duty », New York Times, June 28, 2011.

– Nick Wingfield, « What’s Twitch ? Gamers Know, and Amazon Is Spending $1 Billion on It », The New York Times


On Video Games in China

– Eric Pfanner, « China Cracks Open the Door for Video Game Consoles, but Doubts Abound », New York Times, Jan 8, 2014.


On Video Games in Japan

– Martin Fackler, « Start-Up Spirit Emerges in Japan », The New York Times, January 5, 2014.

– Cécile Ducourtieux, « La nouvelle vague high-tech japonaise », Le Monde, May 31, 2013.

On the Video Game Industry

– Nick Wingfield, « Empty Shelves Signal Revival in Game Consoles », The New York Times, December 23, 2013.

– On Activision, see: Amy Chozick, « At Activision, a Hero and Villain, Zapped Into One », New York Times, December 16, 2012 (profile of Bobby Kotick, CEO of Activision Blizzard)

– On Nintendo, see: Nick Paumgarten, « Master Of Play », The New Yorker, December 20-27, 2010. (Article about the Nintendo Chief Artist) ; Nick Wingfield, « Nintendo Confronts a Changes Video Game World », The New York Times, November 25, 2012.

– On Ubisoft, see: Caitlin Kelly, « Where the Artists Are the Superheroes », New York Times, April 27, 2013.


Internet & Langage

(MOOCS, Globish, langages, Khan Academy)

On « Globish »

– See the book Globish, How the English Language Became the World’s Language, by Robert McCrum, Viking, 2010 (see especially chapter 13, « The World At Your Fingertips’ : From Google to Globish, 1989-2009 »).

– Robert McCrum, William Cran, Robert MacNeil, The Story of English, Penguin Books, 2003.

– Raffaele Simone, Pris dans la Toile, L’esprit aux temps du web, Gallimard, 2012.

– Articles on the same subject : « Globish For Beginners », by Isaac Chotiner, The New Yorker, May 31, 2010 and « One World, One Voice », by Roy Blount Jr., The New York Times, June 9, 2010.


On the « Ñ » Debate

– A few articles from El Pais on this debate (in spanish) :

On « Spanish-Speakers » in the US

– For US Spanish speakers, see: the 2010 Census with projections for 2012 (

– Two articles are helpful: Stuart Elliott, « Web Content Creators Focus on Spanish Speakers », New York Times, May 1, 2013 ; Amy Chozick, « Spanish-Language TV Dramas Heat Up Miami », New York Times, March 9, 2012.

On « Francophonie »

– For statistics on « Francophonie », see: Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie, La Langue française dans le monde, Nathan, 2010.

– On new CIRA/ACEI (Canada) regulations, see: (FAQ, October 12, 2010).

Internet World Users by Language

– « EURid-UNESCO World Report on Internationalised Domain Names Deployment 2012 », EURid, November 2012.

– Internet World Stats ( has important statistics about languages. These statistics are compiled from Nielsen Online, International Telecommunications Union, and the GfK Institute.

– Estimates of the number of internet users by language are for 2011. These figures are based on the one million most visited websites (which are just a part of the total) ; only the home page is analyzed. Data may change quickly as internet and smartphone penetration increase.



– Many articles have been written on MOOCs. Here are a few I use: Tamar Lewin, « Harvard and MIT Team Up to Offer Free Online Courses », New York Times, May 2, 2012 ;  Richard Pérez-Pena, « Top Universities Test the Online Appeal of Free », New York Times, July 17, 2012 ; Tamar Lewin, « Universities Reshaping Education on the Web », New York Times, July 17, 2012 ; Mark Edmundson, « The Trouble With Online Education », New York Times, July 19, 2012. See also : « Answers for Middle-Aged Seekers of MOOCs », Part 1 and Part 2, New York Times, September 4, 2013 and September 11, 2013 ; « The Attack on the MOOCs », The Economist, July 20th 2013 ; Tawar Lewin, « Students Rush to Web Classes, but Profits May Be Much Later », New York Times, January 6, 2013 ; Andrew Delbanco, « MOOCs of Hazars », New Republic, March 31, 2013 ; Laura Pappano, « The Year of the MOOC », New York Times, November 2, 2012.

– The debate on MOOC efficiency: Alan Robbins, Stephen Schreiber, Myra Lesser, « Online Courses : High Hopes, Trimmed », The New York Times, December 16, 2013 ; Tamar Lewin, « After Setbacks, Online Courses Are Rethought », The New York Times, December 10, 2013.

– On the US Department of State and MOOCs : Tamar Lewin, « U.S. Teamps Up With Operator of Online Courses to Plan a Global Network », New York Times, November 1, 2013.

– On universities going online : Nathan Heller, « Laptop U. Has the Future of College Moved Online ? », New Yorker, May 20, 2013.

– On TED lectures : Nathan Heller, « Listen and Learn », New Yorker, July 9, 2012.

On Khan Academy

– Claudia Dreifus, « It All Started With a 12 Years Old Cousin. Salman Khan Turned Family Tutoring into Khan Academy », New York Times, Jan. 27, 2014.


Liquid Democracy

– Blondiaux Loïc, Le nouvel esprit de la démocratie.

– Bauman Zygmunt, Liquid Modernity. See this article about the book : Stuart Jeffries « Pump-house of the heart » The Guardian

– Barber Benjamin, Strong Democracy participatory politics for a new age.

– Rosanvallon Pierre, La Contre-démocratie.

– Jeremy Helmans, « A quoi ressemble le nouveau pouvoir », TED.

– « Le numérique au secours de la démocratie ? » Soft Power, France Culture

– Gilles Bastin «  »La Démocratie Internet. Promesses et limites », de Dominique Cardon et « Médiactivistes », de Dominique Cardon et Fabien Granjon : l’utopie Internet » Le Monde

– « Démocratie liquide » L’Alphabet Numérique, France Culture

– Sophie Fay « Marre de la politique à la papa ? Essayez les Civic Tech » Nouvel Obs

– « GOV, l’application pour smartphone qui donne le pouls de l’opinion » Le Monde

– « Baki Youssoufou » ‘We sign it’ est une plateforme de pétition de mobilisation citoyenne »

– Corentin Durand « Qu’est-ce que NationBuilder, le CMS qui veut renouveler la démocratie ? » Numerama

– Charles M. Blow « A New Age Of Activism » The New York Times


Big Data

La bataille mondiale des données, Soft Power, France Culture

Big Data : qu’en pensent les français ? Enquête Harris interactive

– Eric Schmidt : « Toutes nos activités ont besoin d’intelligence artificielle », Les Echos
– Antoine Bonnet, Les craintes à l’égard du Big Data sont-elles légitimes? Slate

– Simon Parkin, The Artificially Intelligent Doctor Will Hear You Now, Technology Review