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FredericMartel-Delacultureenamerique-Champsessais

SOURCES, BIBLIOGRAPHY, NOTES ON THE CATHOLIC CHURCH, CLERICALISM AND HOMOSEXUALITY

Table of content

Note to the readers

This mini dictionary is a multiple source companion document on the Catholic Church in relation to the book Sodoma, published in 2019 in fifteen languages (the English title of the book is : In the Closet of the Vatican).

It has more than two hundred entries of places, persons and sources with more than one thousand book references and article links. They are organized in alphabetic order to make it easily searchable. Readers will also find at the end of this document the quotations and credits ; they will find here the team of researchers and translators who have been part of this international project.

This bibliography is not focusing solely on homosexuality but also on the general history of church, clericalism, politics, papacies and other social issues etc.

This document is a work in progress. It will be updated and corrected. (For any corrections or complements, please write to : martel2021@yahoo.com)

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©© CREATIVE COMMONS – This document is published under a Creative Commons licence : BY-NC. Licensees may copy or distribute this document only if they mention the credits (name of the document, its author, the related book and this website with a clikable URL) and only for non-commercial purposes. For others uses, please contact us.

Contents

— A —

Africa

◊ See also : AIDS ; Cardinal Robert Sarah ; Cardinal López Trujillo.
On Africa (general), I have used : Jean-Michel Severino & Olivier Ray, Le Temps de l’Afrique, Odile Jacob, 2010 ; Martin Meredith, The Fate of Africa : from the hopes of freedom to the heart of despair : a history of fifty years of Independence, Public Affairs, 2010.
Section 377 and colonial homophobia : Several African, Middle-Eastern and Asian countries have the same “Section 377” in their penal code. It comes from British colonialism (the article n°377 was first implemented in India then in the rest of the commonwealth). On this issue, see Human Rights Watch, « This alien legacy: The origins of sodomy laws in British colonialism », Dec 17, 2008 (see http://www.hrw.org) ; Robert Aldrich, Colonialism and Homosexuality, Routlege, 2003 ; Ronald Hyam, Empire and Sexuality : The British Experience, Manchester University, 1990. On this subject, see also my book Global Gay, Flammarion, 2013, pp. 141-142 and 192 ; I re-use some of these paragraphs in Sodoma).
Catholic Church and Africa, see: Robert Calderisi, Earthly Mission, The Catholic Church and world development, Yale University Press, 2013 (pp. 80, 81, 234).
On AIDS in Africa : ◊ see AIDS.
On the situation in Uganda and the assassination of David Kato see : Jeffrey Gettleman & Josh Kron, New York Times, Jan 4, 2010, May 2, 2010, Jan 27, 2011, Jan 29, 2011 (« Remembering David Kato, a Gay Ugandan and a Marked Man ») and Feb 3, 2011. On the same subject, see « Gay in Ouganda », New Yorker, Feb 2, 2011 and « Out in Africa », New Yorker, Dec 24, 2012.
On South Africa, see : Marc Gevisser & Edwin Cameron, ed., Defiant Desire : Gay and Lesbian Lives in South Africa, Routlege, 1995 ; Shaun de Waal, Anthony Manion, ed., Pride, Protest and Celebration, ed. Fanele, 2006 ; Shaun de Waal, Anthony Manion, Melanie Judge, ed., To Have & To Hold, The making of same-sex marriage in South Africa, ed. Fanele, 2008. See also : Edwin Cameron, Witness to Aids, ed. Tafelberg, 2005 (with a preface by Nelson Mandela). On « corrective rapes », see the report by Human Rights Watch, « We’ll show you you’re a woman, Violence and discrimination against Black Lesbians and Transgender Men in South Africa », brochure 76 p., 2011. On Nelson Mandela, see : Nelson Mandela, Long Walk to Freedom (see Part 11th, « Freedom »), Little, Brown and Company, 1994 ; Jean Guiloineau, Nelson Mandela, Plon, 1990 ; Nelson Mandela, Conversations with Myself (introduction by Barack Obama), Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2010.
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma, in chapter(s) : 14, « Les diplomates du pape » ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 14 « The pope’s Diplomacy ».

Aguer (Hector)

– Archbishop of Argentina
– Archbishop of La Plata (Argentina) from 2000 to 2018. He has been considered one of the main opponents of Jorge Bergoglio in Argentina. Both Aguer and Bergoglio initially developed a parallel career. During the 1980s, they worked as rectors of seminaries in the same city (San Miguel) and were appointed auxiliary bishops of Buenos Aires the same year. They have represented opposite visions within the Argentine bishops’ conference. See also this article on his links to cardinals Leonardo Sandri and Angelo Sodano, as well as the Vatican lobbyist and former ambassador to the Holy See Esteban Caselli (he was also an Italian Senator). Aguer was also chaplain to the Order of Malta, which was against Bergoglio when he was archbishop of Buenos Aires. • See also these articles and books about Aguer’s links to the banker Francisco Trusso (Pagina 12 and Olga Wornat, Nuestra Santa Madre, Buenos Aires, Ediciones B, 2002).
Argentine dictatorship : Aguer was accused of denouncing the priest Pablo Gazzarri, who was kidnapped and disappeared in 1976, according to the testimonies of two priests disclosed by Father Eduardo de la Serna. No judicial charges were filed against Aguer, so there has not been any official accusation against him. (Horacio Verbitsky, La mano izquierda de Dios, Buenos Aires, Sudamericana, 2010). The bishop said trials against members of the armed forces were “revenge,” and he questioned human rights policies and the official figures among the victims of forced disappearance.
Homosexuality, gender issues : Aguer acts as the spokesman of the conservative church on sexuality and gender issues. He opposed gay civil unions, marriage and adoption, the ordination of homosexual priests, transgender protection laws, feminism, sex education programs in schools, the promotion of condoms, the sexual debauchery of Olympic athletes, transgender people and gender issues, and even the film Call me by your name.
Retirement of Aguer : Rodolfo Lara, “Era arzobispo de La Plata y cumplió 75 años, Se retiró Héctor Aguer, el obispo más polémico de la Iglesia argentina”, Clarìn, May 24, 2018
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 4, « Buenos Aires» ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 4 « Buenos Aires ».

Aids

◊ See also : Africa ; Robert Sarah
On the history of AIDS : I use David France, How to Survive a Plague, The Inside Story of How Citizens and Science Tamed Aids, Knopf, 2016. On the French history of AIDS, I use sometimes my own book, F. Martel, Le Rose et le Noir, Les Homosexuels en France depuis 1968, Seuil, 1996 ; trans. in English: The Pink and the Black, Stanford University Press, 2000.
The Catholic Church and AIDS : Patrick Verspieren “L’Eglise catholique face à l’épidémie de sida”, Études, 2007/2.
On the AIDS crisis : Paul Benkimoun, “Sida : la prevention est en crise, selon l’ONU”, Le Monde, July 19, 2018.
On Aids in Africa : Robert Calderisi, Earthly Mission, The Catholic Church and world development, Yale University Press, 2013 (pp. 80, 81, 234). I have also used my previous book Global Gay (Flammarion, 2013) and I have republished a few pages from this book (pp. 190-192). See also UNAIDS and WHO, Le Point sur l’épidémie de sida, Dec 2009, 101 p.
On the death rate of priests from HIV : this rate is at least four times that of the general population, see Gerald Posner, God’s Bankers, A History of Money and Power at the Vatican, Simon & Schuster, 2015, p. 404. See also the study based on anonymized blood exams of 65 Roman seminarists, in the 1990s : 38 % were HIV positive (study quoted in Carmelo Abbate, in Panorama, op. cit.).
On the scandal of Istituto Dermopatico dell’ Immacolata (IDI) : see Marco Politi, Francesco tra i lupi, Gius, Laterza & Figli, 2014 ; trans. in French : François parmi les loups, ed. Philip Rey, 2015 ; French paperback (updated version) : François parmi les loups, Points, Seuil, 2015 (see : pp 235) and La Stampa. 
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 13, « La Croisade contre les gays» and 14 « Les diplomates du pape » ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 13th « The croisade against gays » and 14th « The pope’s diplomacy ».

Alison (James)

– Theologian and priest
– The English priest and theologian James Alison is a pro-LGBT right. He lived for years in Mexico, Brazil, and Spain. See : “Reflexiones de un sacerdote gay”, Newsweek en Español, April 14, 2017.
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 22, « Dissidents» ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 21 « Dissidents ».

Amour d’amitié (L’)

– The expression is from Saint Thomas Aquinas an was popularized in Medieval France. See Aelred de Rievaulx, L’Amitié spirituelle, ed. Cerf, Vie Monastique n°30, Abbaye de Bellefontaine, 1994 ; Jean-Marie Gueulette, L’Amitié, une épiphanie, Cerf, 2004 ; Jacques Follon & James McEvoy, Sagesses de l’amitié II, Cef, 1998 ; see also Yves Floucat : here.
– A French network of gay and non-gay priests and Catholics, Aelred’s Fraternity, has been created around the concept of “amour d’amitié”, see here; hereessai2 ; and here.
– On Saint Aelred de Rievaulx, see also : John Boswell, Christianity, Social Tolerance and Homosexuality, University of Chicago Press, 1980, pp. 225-226. And see Andrew Sullivan, “Gay Priests and the lives they no longer want to hide”, New York Magazine, Jan 21, 2019.
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 7 and 8, « Le code Maritain » and « Amour d’Amitié » ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 7 & 8 « The Maritain code » and « Loving Friendship ».

Anatrella (Tony)

– French priest (suspended)
◊ See also: Reparative Therapy.
– Tony Anatrella published several books related to the LGBT issue, AIDS and « gender theory ». He had an important influence in the Vatican under Pope Benedict XVI and has been an expert on sexual issues and a member of several Pontifical Councils in the Vatican (family, health etc.). He has been an advocate against civil unions and gay marriage and a fierce opponent of the presence of homosexuals in the Church.
– In 2006, and again in 2016, Anatrella was denounced for sexual abuses against some of his male patients. After a large scandal with more than ten witnesses denouncing Anatrella, opening possible criminal convictions, the French cardinal André Vingt-Trois opened a canonical trial against Anatrella. See : Sophie des Déserts, “Les Thérapies très spéciales de Mgr Anatrella”, Le Nouvel Obs, 16 novembre 2006 ; See also : Le Point ; La Vie ; La Vie (2) ; France Culture ; Le Monde (and hundreds of others articles).
– In 2018, Mgr Aupetit, archbishop of Paris confirmed the sanction against Mgr Anatrella : see Jean-Marie Guénois, “Mgr Tony Anatrella sanctionné par l’Église”, Le Figaro, July 5, 2018 (and also L’Obs).
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 17, « La fille aînée de l’église» ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter 19, « Seminarians ».

Anti-Pope Francis movement

◊ See Pope Francis
LifeSiteNews : this website is the media outlet of the Campaign Life Coalition (Campaign Life), a Canadian-based political lobby founded in 1978. This organization tries to build a conservative agenda against abortion, euthanasia and same-sex marriage. It is based in Toronto.
• Daily News reports : this website is also linked to the Campaign Life Coalition.
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 2, « La théorie du genre» ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 2 « Gender Theory ».

Arcadie

– French homophile association.
– On Arcadie, see the chapter I dedicated to its history, in Le Rose et le Noir, Les Homosexuels en France depuis 1968, Le Seuil, 1996, chapter III, pp. 87-117 ; this book is translated in English under the title The Pink and the Black, Stanford University Press, 2000. I interviewed its founder André Baudry at lengh in 1995, in two separate interviews, in Nice, France ; I also interviewed Jacques de Ricaumont and Roger Peyrefitte, co-founders of Arcadie several times.
– A British historian, Julian Jackson, also wrote an interesting history of Arcadie, for the Autrement serie « Sexes en Tous Genres », n°256 : Arcadie, La vie homosexuelle en France, de l’après-guerre à la dépénalisation, Autrement, 2009 (unfortunately, Jackson with his anglosaxon prism, does not always understand French singularity or secularism).
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 7, « Le Code Maritain » ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 7 « The Maritain code ».

Argentina

◊ For Pope Francis, see : Pope Francis. For Theology of Liberation : see Theology of Liberation. On dictatorship see also: Pio Laghi.
– General reading about Catholicism in Argentina : I mainly use articles and books by Verónica Giménez Béliveau, who is a specialist of Catholicism in Argentina : see her main book, Católicos militantes, 2006.
Dictatorship (1976-83). A large portion of the Argentine Catholic Church had a decisive role of support and legitimation of the military regime. Historical, judicial, and human rights organizations investigations have established that members of the church participated in the torture of detainees in illegal concentration camps and detention centers, provided spiritual support to the torturers, legitimized extermination methods through theological foundations, and concealed information about the final destination of the victims from the relatives who turned to them. Members of the Church who were victims as a consequence of their pastoral work were left unprotected in many occasions. • In criminal cases, numerous priests, including bishops, have been mentioned in connection with crimes. However, most died before being investigated, others have been accused or are under request of international extradition, and many have not been yet investigated. A few of them were convicted. • The official report of the National Commission on the Disappearance of Persons (1984) accounts for individual responsibilities of clergymen who participated or were complicit in human rights violations. It specially mentioned the cases of military chaplains and vicars, and registered the use of ecclesiastical properties as illegal detention centers. The participation of members of the Church was also recorded in the historical Trial of the Juntas (1985).
– There is an extensive bibliography on the role of the Catholic Church during the Argentine dictatorship, including : Olga Wornat, Nuestra Santa Madre, Buenos Aires, Ediciones B, 2002 (I especially use this book : Olga Wornat interviewed Pio Laghi, Sodano, Sandri, Bergoglio) ; Emilio Mignone, Iglesia y dictadura, Buenos Aires, Colihue, 1986 ; ; M. Soledad Catoggio, Los desaparecidos de la Iglesia, Buenos Aires, Siglo XXI, 2016 ; Lucas Bilbao, and Ariel Lede, Profeta del genocidio, Buenos Aires, Sudamericana, 2016 (on the role of bishop Victorio Bonamín) ; Loris Zanatta, La larga agonía de la Nación católica, Buenos Aires, Sudamericana, 2015 ; Luis Miguel Donatello, Catolicismo y Montoneros, Buenos Aires, Manantial, 2010 (a sociological work on the relationship between Catholicism and the Peronist guerrilla left until the coup) ; Roberto Di Stefano, and Loris Zanatta, Historia de la Iglesia argentina, Buenos Aires, Sudamericana, 2015 (a more comprehensive work on the history of the Argentine Church) ; Juan Cruz Esquivel, Detrás de los muros, Buenos Aires, Universidad Nacional de Quilmes, 2004 (on Church-Government relations in the democratic transition during the 90s) ; The journalist Horacio Verbitsky has published a long series of investigations on that period: El vuelo (Buenos Aires, Planeta, 1995); El silencio (Buenos Aires, Sudamericana, 2005); Doble juego (Buenos Aires, Sudamericana, 2006), and La mano izquierda de Dios (Buenos Aires, Sudamericana, 2010).
Dictatorship and Pope Francis : Bergoglio’s role during the Argentine dictatorship has been a source of controversy. Between 1973 and 1979, he was Provincial Superior of the Jesuits in Argentina, coinciding with the first half of the military regime. • Since 1999, the journalist Horacio Verbitsky has published a series of articles in which he reveals the alleged collaboration of Bergoglio with Marine officers in the kidnapping of the Jesuit priests Orlando Yorio and Francisco Jalics. According to this version, Bergoglio expelled the priests accusing them of having links with guerilla organizations in their work in a shantytown of Buenos Aires. In this way, Bergoglio would have removed protection and allowed the disappearance of the priests, who were released five months later after being tortured. (Some of the articles were removed from the newspaper’s website after Bergoglio was elected pope, but can be found here; also see Horacio Verbitsky, El silencio, Buenos Aires, Sudamericana, 2005). • In 2010, Bergoglio testified as a witness in a judicial process for the crimes committed in the concentration camp known as ESMA, were Yorio and Jalics were detained. The court decided not to investigate Bergoglio based on the lack of evidence. According to one of the judges, “it is totally false to say that Jorge Bergoglio betrayed those priests. We analyzed it, we listened to that version, we saw the evidence, and we understood that his actions had no legal implications in these cases.” He added: “We did not judge whether Bergoglio was more or less courageous; the question is if he betrayed the priests or not, and we agreed that there were no reasons for us to denounce him.” • In Pope Francis: Conversations with Jorge Bergoglio by Sergio Rubin and Francesca Ambrogetti (London, Hodder & Stoughton, 2015); originally published in Argentina as El jesuita (Buenos Aires, Vergara, 2010), Bergoglio addressed the issue. He recounted how he helped politically persecuted people (something that victims, relatives, and witnesses have corroborated) and defended his actions to obtain the release of Yorio and Jalics, denying any participation in the disappearance. • The testimonies of Yorio and Jalics were contradictory. Yorio died in 2000; Jalics, while initially blaming Bergoglio, in 2013 denied that the Pope had denounced them.
– Andrés Gioeni (born in 1971). Argentine ex-priest, the first to get married to his gay husband. He was ordained in 2000 and a few years later he left the priesthood. Since then, he has become an actor, underwear model, and posed nude for the cover of the gay magazine Imperio (2002). The photos provoked a scandal in his hometown Mendoza. In 2013, Gioeni wrote an open letter to Pope Francis given his apparent opening towards homosexuality. The text had great international repercussions. He urged the Pontiff to “deepen the opening and renew the Church’s moral teaching on sexuality.” He also wrote a book advocating against celibacy in the Church and in favor of marriage equality.
Homosexuality, the Argentine Church and Pope Francis’ position. In spite of recent claims that Pope Francis is open to homosexuality, he actively opposed the 2010 legislation that made marriage possible for gay couples in Argentina. During the legislative debate, Catholic schools, universities and other organizations, with the support of local bishops, led protests against the law throughout the country. However, the bishops did not directly participate in the demonstrations. The bishops’ conference entrusted the follow-up of the law to the auxiliary bishop of La Plata Antonio Marino (Bishop Héctor Aguer’s right hand man). Marino disseminated fake information and statistics against homosexuals (he said, for example, that same-sex couples are 30 times more violent than heterosexuals). In 2009, when he was still Archbishop of Buenos Aires, Bergoglio distributed a statement against a judicial decision that authorized the marriage of a gay couple. During the debate of the law in 2010, Bergoglio wrote to a convent – the letter was released by the official Catholic news agency AICA – saying that the law is “not simply a political struggle, but it is an attempt to destroy God’s plan. It is not just a bill (a mere instrument) but a ‘move’ of the father of lies who seeks to confuse and deceive the children of God.” And he concluded: “Let’s remind [the senators] what God said to his people in a moment of great anguish: ‘This war is not yours, but God’s’: defend us, then, in this war of God.” (See the English version)
– Some sources say that Bergoglio supported civil unions as “a lesser evil” before same-sex marriage, but he never made a public statement on this. See : Osvaldo Bazán, Historia de la homosexualidad en la Argentina, Buenos Aires, Marea, 2010 (a complete book on the history of homosexuality in Argentina) ; Marcelo Larraquy, Recen por él, Buenos Aires, Sudamericana, 2013 (it recounts Bergoglio’s position on same-sex marriage; an extract from the book is also available – in Spanish).
Theology of the people : A theological current born in Argentina after the 1968 Medellín meeting of the Latin American Episcopal Conference (Celam) in response to the Second Vatican Council. Although it had little impact outside of Argentina, it became relevant as several authors recognize in it a decisive influence on Francis’ pastoral approach – among them, the Jesuit theologian Juan Carlos Scannone, one of the main figures of the theology of the people and intellectual mentor of Bergoglio. Its main theologians were Lucio Gera, Rafael Tello and Scannone himself. Liberation theology expert Iván Petrella considers that the theology of the people emerged in parallel to liberation theology, not as a subcategory (while other authors position it as a current within liberation theology). Both have in common the concept of “preferential option for the poor,” but the theology of the people is based on the Peronist political and social mass movement and consider popular religiosity as a tool for liberation, setting aside the Marxist conceptual framework of liberation theology. Other readings consider the influence of Peronism as secondary. • In present days, the theology of the people continues its development in the curas villeros, a group of priests that work in the shantytowns. Through his support, Bergoglio institutionalized and legitimized their work, as well as that of social organizations that work in the margins of Buenos Aires, such as the Movement of Excluded Workers headed by the young lawyer Juan Grabois (a consultant of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace and organizer of the Vatican-sponsored World Meeting of Popular Movements). On this subject, see : Juan Carlos Scannone, “El papa Francisco y la teología del pueblo,” Razón y Fe, 1395 (2015), 31-50 ; also from Scanonne, La teología del pueblo: raíces teologicas del papa Francisco, Santander, Sal Terrae, 2016 ; Lucio Gera, La teología argentina del pueblo, Santiago de Chile, Ediciones Universidad Alberto Hurtado, 2015 ; Rafael Luciani, El Papa Francisco y la teología del pueblo, Madrid, PPC, 2016 ; Sebastián Politi, Teología del pueblo: una propuesta argentina a la teología latinoamericana, 1967-1976, Buenos Aires, Editorial Guadalupe, 1992.
Juan Carlos Scannone : A theologist Jesuit, close to Bergoglio. He wrote several books on Liberation theology, among them : “Théologie de la liberation et théologie du people, Le pape du du peuple”. See : Juan Carlos Scannone, Le Pape du people, Bergoglio raconté par son confrère théologien, jésuite et argentin, 2015 (with Bernadette Sauvaget, interviewer).
Jorge González Manent : Former seminarist who did not become a priest. Knew Borges and Bergoglio (Pope Francis). See : BBC World article. About the photo “of the three Jorge” (Bergoglio, Borgès y González Manent) see Periodista Digital and also BBC.
Juan Carlos Maccarone : He was the protagonist of one of the greatest scandals of the Catholic Church in Argentina. In 2005 he was a bishop in Argentina, his lover, a 23-year-old man, secretly recorded a video in which he had sexual relationships with Maccarone and then released it as “political vengeance”. The bishop presented his immediate resignation to Benedict XVI who was pope at the time. Maccarone died in 2015, at 74
– Nicolás Alessio :
Argentinian priest who was expelled from the Church for his vocal support in favour of homosexuals and their right to marry. (Links are in Spanish).  Apart from Alessio, only a handful of priests supported the legislation of gay marriage.
– Pink Mafia : Puerto-Rican Alberto Cutié was a Catholic priest for 15 years. In a book called “The Pink Mafia” he denounces the Church. He says that over 60% of the clergy is gay, that to get to higher positions priests sleep with their superiors, that in the seminary there is promiscuous gay behavior and that straight seminarists even feel out of place. 
On homosexuality in Argentina : I mainly use the book of Osvaldo Bazán, Historia de la homosexualidad en la Argentina, Marea, 2004 (several editions, with an update on gay marriage : Osvaldo Bazán, Historia de la homosexualidad en la Argentina, Hacia la legalidad, Marea, 2010).
Sexual abuse in the Argentine Church : There is no public official data from the Argentine bishops’ conference about priests convicted of sexual abuse. In 2013, the conference approved their guidelines for clerical sexual abuse against minors.
BishopAccountability.org produced a database of Argentine clergymen publicly accused of sexually abusing minors and vulnerable adults. The list includes 70 names collected from media coverage and court fillings, most of them occurred in the last 20 years. The news agency Télam compiled the cases of 62 members of the Church since 2002. The lists include three bishops. The most resounding case was the one of Julio César Grassi, founder of a charity that operated children’s homes and, probably, the most famous priest in Argentina at the time. Grassi was first arrested in 2002 after an investigation led by the TV reporter Miriam Lewin revealed the case (he had a previous accusation in 2000). It was only in 2017 that the Supreme Court confirmed a 15-year sentence for sexual abuse against three boys – aged 9, 13 and 17 – and the diocese of Morón stated that a canonical investigation of the allegations was ongoing. He is still a priest even though he cannot act publicly. (See also here).
The role of Bergoglio in the sexual abuse cases : In a dialogue with the rabbi Abraham Skorka reproduced in On Heaven and Earth (New York, Image, 2013; originally published in Argentina in 2010), Jorge Bergoglio, then Archbishop of Buenos Aires, addressed the issue of clerical sexual abuse: “If a priest is a pedophile, he is a pedophile before he is a priest. Now, when this happens, you can never turn a blind eye. You cannot be in a position of power and destroy the life of another person. In my diocese it never happened to me, but a bishop called me once by phone to ask me what to do in a situation like this […].” When the book was first released, however, dozens of cases of sexual abuse had occurred in his diocese and in the country. The most relevant, where his role was questioned, was the one of Father Grassi. Under the presidency of Bergoglio, Argentine bishops’ conference entrusted a top lawyer to write a study of the judiciary procedure by which Grassi was convicted (the author indicated that Bergoglio specially entrusted it to him). In four volumes, the study denies the accusations and discredits the plaintiffs. The volumes were circulated to members of the Supreme Court before their verdict in “a scandalous action of lobbying and pressure on the justice,” the defense attorney said. Bergoglio barely referred to the case that shook the country in public. The Argentine scholar specialized in Catholicism Fortunato Mallimacci said that “the case of the priest Grassi is the best known, but there were many others, and Bergoglio never pronounced himself or took measures to sanction them; he always prioritized the preservation of the institutional image.” According to BishopAccountability.org, Bergoglio is accused of covering up, protecting, or silencing four other cases of sexual abuse.
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 4, « Buenos Aires» ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 4 « Buenos Aires ».

Art & Vatican Museums Art Collections

◊ See also : Michelangelo ; Leonardo da Vinci ; Caravaggio ; Paolo VI.
– For the art collections in the Vatican Museums, I used Anja Grebe, The Vatican All the Paintings, The Complete Collection of Old Masters, Plus more than 300 Sculptures, Maps, Tapestries and Other Artifacts, Published by BlackDog and & Leventhal, 2013, 525 pages (with a DVD to search the collections ; a very useful tool on old paintings, less efficient for sculptures and modern paintings).
– For an overview of the Church and arts, I read with interest Jacques Maritain, Art et scolastique, 1920, reed., 1935 and Pierre Gibert, Quand les peintres lisaient la Bible, Bayard, 2015.
– Paolo VI : Speech about the arts, June 23, 1973 :
– John-Paul II : Speech on culture at UNESCO, in Paris, June 2, 1980 :
– Vatican Museums Art Collections : see Francesca Boschetti, ed., 40 Years of the Collection of contemporary art, 1973-2013, Edizioni Musei Vaticani, 2013 (Foreword by Mico Forti).
– For a critical reading of the relations between the Church and contemporary artists, see : François Bœspflug, Pourquoi j’ai quitté l’Ordre… et comment il m’a quitté, ed. J. C. Béhar, 2016.
– The Vatican at the Venice Biennal (here).
{further readingAn unpublished chapter on this subject will be available later.

Asia

– On Asia in general, see : Gerard Sullivan et Peter A. Jackson, coll., Gay and Lesbian Asia, Culture, Identity, Community, Harrington Park Press, 2001 (see chapter on « Tongzhi », and chapters on the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand and Singapore). I also use the report by the 3rd Regional Conference of the International Lesbian and Gay Association-Asia, Chiang Mai, Thailand, Jan 2008, brochure, 36 p.
On China, see : Richard McGregor, The Party : The Secret World of China’s Communist Rulers, Harper, 2010 ; Carl Walter & Fraser Howie, Red Capitalism : The Fragile Financial Foundation of China’s Extraordinary Rise, Wiley, 2010 ; Tom Mountford, The Legal Status and Position of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender People in the People’s Republic of China (brochure, 2009, 35 p.). On the number of homosexuals see the studies by Zhang Beichuan (and « Gay marriage gone wrong », The Economist, July 17 2012). See also the article by Andrew Jacobs, « Gay Festival in China Pushes Official Boundaries », New York Times, June 15, 2009.
On Japon, see Jeff Kingston, Contemporary Japan : History, Politics and Social Change Since the 1980’s, Wiley-Blackwell, 2010 and the book by Jean-François Sabouret, Japan, la fabrique des futurs, CNRS Editions, 2011.
On Section 377 on British Penal code, see the article by Douglas Sanders, « 377 and the unnatural afterlife of British colonialism in Asia », Asian Journal of Comparative Law, 2009 ; and the document by Human Rights Watch, « This alien legacy: The origins of sodomy laws in British colonialism », Dec 17, 2008.
About India, see : Parmesh Shahani, Gay Bombay, Globalization, Love and Belonging in Contemporary India, Sage Publications, 2008 ; Anand Giridharadas, India Calling, An Intimate portrait of a Nation’s Remaking, Times Books/Henry Holt, 2011 ; Patrick French, India : A Portrait, Knopf, 2011 et Mark Tully, India : The Road Ahead, Rider, 2011. On Gandhi, see the biography of Joseph Lelyveld, Great Soul : Mahatma Gandhi and His Struggle With India, Knopf, 2011.
On Indonesia see : Tom Boellstorff, The Gay Archipelago, Sexuality and Nation in Indonesia, Princeton University Press, 2005 ; Bruce Emond, « Hartoyo : Coming out for his rights », The Jakarta Post, 27 mars 2009 ; Arus Pelangi, Restricted Freedom of Association and Freedom of Expression for LGBT Groups in Indonesia, Jakarta, 2010, 9 p.
On Singapore and Indonesia, see : Baden Offord, Homosexual Rights as Human Rights Activism in Indonesia, Singapore and Australia, Peter Lang Publisher, 2003.
On Philippines, see the pro-gay positions by president’s Rodrigo Duterte, here.
For general information on homosexuality in Asia, see the website : fridae.com
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 14, « Les diplomates du pape» ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 14 « The Pope’s diplomacy ».

Augustine (Saint)

– On Saint Augustine, I mainly use the biography of Serge Lancel, Saint Augustin, Fayard, 1999 ; See also: Peter Brown, La Vie de Saint Augustin, Seuil, reed. 2001. See Andrew Sullivan, “Gay Priests and the lives they no longer want to hide”, New York Magazine, Jan 21, 2019.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Australia

◊ For Cardinal George Pell, see: Pell.
– On the debate on compensation for institutionalised sexual abuse victims. According to the Australian Royal Commission there are an estimated 60,000 survivors of institutionalised sexual abuse in Australia (including the Catholic Church). A Federal Govt. scheme has been introduced to compensate them, costing up to $4 Billion dollars. This may have implications for other countries who will have one day to investigate these types of abuses. (Here articles by ABC/Australia).
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 2, « La Théorie du genre » ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 2 « Gender Theory ».

Austria

◊ See also : Schönborn (Christoph) ; Groër (Hans Hermann).
– See Helmut Schueller : Helmut Schueller founded in 2006 the „Pfarrerinitiative“ which is part of the International Church Reform Network (icrn.info) During a lecture tour through the United States in 2013 Schueller advocated for a stronger relationship between the church and catholic gay couples .“If it is a seriously meant partnership we should support it. The church should evaluate her judgement about gay marriage ». In December 2017 after a recent judgement of Austrians constitutional court Schueller pointed out that there should be no difference between heterosexual and same-sex-marriage. See also : NCronline.
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 22, « Dissidents» ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 21 « Dissidents ».

Avignon

– Papacy in Avignon (1309-1378).
– I have mainly read the important book by Jean Favier, Les Papes d’Avignon, Fayard, 2006. See also : Bernard Guillemain, Les Papes d’Avignon, 1309-1376, Cerf ed., 1998 and Renée Lefranc, Les Papes en Avignon : La vie à la cour pontificale au fil des jours, Edisud, 2011. See also this article : Dominique Vingtain, “Comment la papauté arrive à Avignon”, in Dans les Secrets du Vatican, De Pierre à François, L’incroyable histoire des papes, L’Express, Thema, Jan 2016.
{further readingThis subject is not developed in Sodoma / In the Closet of the Vatican, but only use as background information.



— B —

Bacon (Francis)

– Painter
– See Gilles Deleuze, Francis Bacon, Logique de la sensation, La difference, 1980 ; Le Seuil, 2002.
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 20, « Passivo e bianco » ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 19 « Passivo e bianco ».

Baggio (Sebastiano)

– Italian Cardinal.
◊ See : Cardinal López Trujillo
– Mgr Baggio has been nuncio in Chile (1953-1959), in Brazil (1964-1969), Prefect of the Congregation of Bishiop (1973-1984). He became Cardinal in 1969 (created by Paulo VI). He has been camerlingue as well (1985-1993). Biography here.
– On Baggio, I use Chilean archives and David Yallop, The Power and the Glory, Inside the Dark Heart of John Paul II’s Vatican, Carroll & Graf Publishers, 2007 (see the chapter on CELAM, his links with right-wing politicians and his relation to Lopèz Trujillo).
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 13, « La Croisade contre les gays » ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 13 « The Crusade against gays ».

Balthasar (Hans Urs von)

– Theologian
– Gerard Loughlin, ed., Queer Theology, Rethinking the Western Body, Blackwell, 2007 (see the chapter on Hans Urs von Baltasar) ; Philippe Barbarin, Théologie et sainteté, Introduction à Hans Urs von Balthasar, éd. Parole et Silence, 2017.
{further readingThis subject is developed in several parts of Sodoma by Frédéric Martel or In the Closet of the Vatican.

Bank of the Vatican (IOR)

◊ See also : Marcinkus (Paul)
– David Yallop, The Power and the Glory, Inside the Dark Heart of John Paul II’s Vatican, Carroll & Graf Publishers, 2007 ; Gianluigi Nuzzi, Vatican SA, Les archives secretes du Vatican, Hugo & C, 2011 ; Gerald Posner, God’s Bankers, A History of Money and Power at the Vatican, Simon & Schuster, 2015, p. 404 ; Gérald Posner, God’s Bankers: A History of Money and Power at the Vatican, Simon and Schuster, 2015 (voir p. 174). See also : Corrado Augias, I Segreti del Vaticano, Mondadori, 2010 (trans in French : “Les errements des banquiers de Dieu”, in Dans les Secrets du Vatican, De Pierre à François, L’incroyable histoire des papes, L’Express, Thema, Jan 2016).
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in several chapter(s) or In the Closet of the Vatican.

Bannon (Steve)

Politician, former advisor of US Pres. Donald Trump
◊ See: US ; Dignitatis Humanae Institute ; Cardinal Burke.
– Bannon and the Dignitatis Humanae Institute, see : Le Monde, October 2018 ; Dignitatis Humanae Institute : “This is How Steve Bannon Sees The Entire World”, Nov 16, 2016 (source).
– On Bannon and Cardinal Burke, see : Jason Horowitz, « Steve Bannon Carries Battles to Another Influential Hub : The Vatican », New York Times, Feb. 7, 2017. See also : Samuel Freedman, « “Church Militant Theology” Is Put To New, and Politicized, Use », New York Times, Dec 30, 2006 ; and an interesting point of view by Christopher Caldwell. For the speech of Steve Bannon at a symposium at the Vatican, via Skype, see the transcription here.
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 2, « La Théorie du genre » ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 2 « Gender Theory ».

Barbarin (Philippe)

– French Cardinal
On Sexual Abuses : Cardinal Barbarin’s supposed cover-up of sexual abuses : Marie-Christine Tabet, Grâce à Dieu, c’est prescrit, L’Affaire Barbarin, Robert Laffont, 2017 (see also : Journal du dimanche, March 12, 2017). Isabelle de Gaulmyn, Histoire d’un silence, Seuil, 2016. Henri Tincq, “Pédophilie dans l’Église : un scandale qui n’en finit pas”, Slate, April 2, 2017. See also : France Inter on the “three Barbarin affairs” (podcast and article here) ; Marie-Christine Tabet, “La Part d’ombre du cardinal. Pédophilie : comment les affaires ont ruiné les ambitions du cardinal Barbarin”, Journal du Dimanche, March 12, 2017. Reportage by Mediapart, March 20, 2017 (see also Marianne, March 20, 2017). See also the petition asking for Barbarin to leave his position. For another version, see : Jean-Marie Guénois, “Mise en cause de Mgr Barbarin : sortir des approximations”, Le Figaro, March 8, 2018 ; Barbarin’s reaction : “Face à la pédophilie, ma réponse n’était pas à la mesure de l’enjeu”, Le Monde, August 13-14, 2017. Overall dossier by Mediapart about Sexual abuses by priests in France (Mediapart). See also, Henri Tincq, “Au Nom de l’Eglise”, L’Express, Dec 12, 2018.
Other books : Philippe Barbarin, Théologie et sainteté, Introduction à Hans Urs von Balthasar, éd. Parole et Silence, 2017.
On the conviction and demission of cardinal Barbarin in March 2019, see : Le Monde.
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 17, « La fille aînée de l’Eglise».

Barbero (Franco)

– Former Italian Priest.
– Born in 1939, Franco Barbero was a priest from 1963 to 2003.
– He published an important book on homosexuality and the Gospel, with journalist Pasquale Quaranta, Omosessualità e Vangelo, Gabrielli Editori, 2008 (in Italian).
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 22, « Dissidents» ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 21 « Dissidents ».

Baudry (André)

– Founder of the homophile association Arcadie.
◊ see Arcadie.

Berger (David)

– German Gay Theologist and Journalist.
– Prominent Catholic theologist. He participated in the highest circles of Vatican theology before outing himself as gay in a 2010 newspaper article. He then became an outcast of the Church and took on a bit of an activist role to fight homophobia inside the Church, which he denounces to be very gay but very homophobic at the same time.
– See his book : David Berger, Der Heilige Schein, Als Schwuler Theologe in der Katholischen Kirche, 2010 (in German, no translations ; see for sections about gayness, pp. 35-45 ; 56-58 ; 63-82 ; 92-160 ; 187-189 ; 189-190 ; 191-202 ; 211-240 ; 240-295). See also, by the same writer :. Katholisch, 2015. See also the key interview by Berger in which he « outed » Pope Benedict (ZDF TV, August 3, 2012) : Source 1 ; Source 2.
– On September 25, 2003, Berger was awarded the status of « Corresponding Academic » („Socio Corrispondente“) of the Pontifical Academy of St. Thomas Aquinas (Pontificia Academia di San Tommaso d’Aquino, abbreviation PAST), which is based in the Vatican City. (Sources: Berger’s Book, Der Heilige Schein, Page 23; See also here from the Web Archive). In May 2009, Berger was appointed editor of the Pontifical Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith with the task of supervising two theological journals (Source: Wikipedia, but the referred source of Wikipedia does not really confirm it: see here). He received the professor’s degree (« Habilitation ») at the Catholic University of Lublin (Poland) in 2005 (Source: Berger’s Book, Der Heilige Schein, Page 23). David Berger was never a priest. In Germany (and) Switzerland it is possible to study theology at the university without being a member of the church.
– See also : « Over half of Catholic priests are gay, says Vatican insider », Pink News, October 7th, 2015.
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 20, « Passivo e bianco » ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 19 « Passivo e bianco ».

Bertone (Tarcisio)

– Cardinal Secretary of State under Pope Benedict XVI.
◊ See Pope Benedict XVI ; Vatileaks I ; Vatileaks II ; Georg Gänswein ; Europa Multiclub – Gay sauna in Rome.
Key Documents : See this interview with Andrea Purgatori, “Meet Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, Pope Francis’s Former Secretary of State”, The Huffington Post, Feb. 18, 2015 ; Photo : for the infamous photo of Cardinal Bertone with Cardinal Bergoglio in November 2017, see here and here.
Life, Personal life and Secrets of Bertone : See Gianluigi Nuzzi, Sua Saintita, La Carte Segrete di Benedetto XVI, 2012, trans. : Sa Sainteté, Scandale au Vatican, Privé, 2012 ; Nicolas Diat, L’Homme qui ne voulait pas être pape, Histoire secrete d’un règne, Albin Michel, 2014 (chapter 30, pp. 289-297 ; not translated into English nor Italian ; the book has been panned by the Pope’s spokesman, Federico Lombardi, who considers it « seriously misleading »).
Scandal on his apartment : Josephine McKenna, « Cardinal’s vast luxury apartment in Vatican angers Pope”, The Telegraph, April 20, 2014. See also Le Temps.
On the Vatileaks scandal : see See Gianluigi Nuzzi, Sua Saintita, La Carte Segrete di Benedetto XVI, 2012, trans. : Sa Sainteté, Scandale au Vatican, Privé, 2012 ; Gerald Posner, I banchieri di Dio, Newton Company Editori ; trans. in English, God’s Bankers, A History of Money and Power at the Vatican, Simon & Schuster, 2015, chap 37, “The powerbroker”, pp. 454-460.
On the speech in Chile in which he conflates homosexuality and pedophilia, see the original speech here ; see also : Charlotte Menegaux, “Le numéro 2 du Vatican lie homosexuels et pedophiles”, Le Figaro, April 13, 2010 ; Rory Carroll and John Hooper, “Vatican attacked over cardinal’s claim of homosexuality and paedophilia link”, The Guardian, April 13, 2010 ; and Andrea Purgatori, “Meet cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, Pope Francis’s Former Secretary of State”, The Huffington Post, Feb. 18, 2015. (See also Liberation & AFP and also Le Monde). For the refutation by the Vatican, see : BBC News.
For his failure and resignation, see : Ingrid Rowland, The Fall of the Vice-Pope, New York Review of Books, June 2014.
Sexual abuse cover up : Cardinal Bertone has been criticized in the Vigano’s Memo in August 2018 (here the original in Italian ; in English ; in French) ; he is also mentioned on the “dirty dozen” list edited by the Survivors’ Network of those Abused by Priests (SNAP) (source here).
– Dozen of articles have been written, under Bertone, about a Vatican building hosting Italy’s biggest gay sauna, see : The Telegraph ; BBC ; Daily Mail ; Time Magazine ; Huffington Post ; The Independent.
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 21, « The Vice Pope » ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 21 « Le Vice-pape ».

Betori (Giuseppe)

Cardinal and Archbishop of Florence and former Secretary General of the Italian Episcopal Conference
◊ See : CEI
– Betorni has spoken so many times against gay people. In 2010, for example, he was against the project of helping gay couples buy their first house in Florence. In 2012 he was the recipient of an open letter written by three priests and a nun who wanted the Church to open its mind about gay people.
In 2008, during the Christmas mass, he attacked the civil partnership for gay couples: “The family between a man and a woman can’t be compared with a cohabitation, especially one between two men”. See this serie of articles in Firenze: Firenze Post ; Article 2 ; Article 3 ; Article 4 ; Article 5.
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 18, « La CEI » ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 17 « CEI ».


Bible
(The)

– When mentioned in this book, I use La Bible de Jérusalem in the French translation, Cerf, 1988 (translation in French : Ecole biblique de Jérusalem). For some comparisons, I also use, as a second choice, La Bible, Nouvelle Traduction, Bayard, 2015 (translation by 20 writers and 27 exegetes). For the New Testament, I use mainly the translation by Hugues Oltramare, Le Nouveau testament, Gallimard, 2001.
– On the history of the Bible, I used several books, among them : André-Marie Gerard, Dictionnaire de la Bible, Robert Laffont, 1989 ; Pierre Monat, Histoire de la Bible, Perrin, 2013, reed. Points/Seuil, 2015 ; Philippe Sellier, La Bible, Aux sources de la culture occidentale, Seuil, 2007. I also use Thomas Römer, Les 100 mots de la Bible, PUF/Que sais-je ?, 2016.

Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana & Archivio Secreto Vaticano

◊ See also : Jean-Louis Bruguès
– Sébastien Maillard, « Bibliothècaire du Vatican et de l’humanité », La Croix, Feb. 16, 2016. http://www.la-croix.com/Religion/Pape/Mgr-Jean-Louis-Brugues-bibliothecaire-Vatican-2016-02-16-1200740365

Bisceglia (Marco)

– Priest, LGBT activist.
– Rocco Pezzano, Troppo Amore Ti Uccidera, Le tre vite di don Marco Bisceglia, EdiGrafema, 2013.
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 1, « Domus Sanctae Marthae» ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 1 « Domus Sanctae Marthae ».

Bloom (Allan)

– American philosopher
– Allan Bloom played an important role in the life of American universities. He wrote an important book, Love and Friendship, 1993, trans. in French L’Amour et l’amitié, De Fallois, 1996 which he dictated while in the hospital dying. He also wrote a much more debated book on the decline of culture on campuses, The Closing of the American Mind, Simon & Schuster, 1987, trans. in French L’Âme désarmée, Julliard, 1987.
– Allan Bloom died in 1992. In the novel Ravelstein (2000), his friend and Nobel Prize Saul Bellow, who he befriended at the University of Chicago, posthumously revealed Bloom’s homosexuality and his death from AIDS. Even though Bellow used a pseudonym in his novel, the figure of Bloom was easily recognizable and the press mentioned it at large. Bloom’s friends do not deny his homosexuality today.
{further readingThis subject has been used as a background in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel.

Boffo (Dino)

– Italian Journalist
◊ See : CEI ; Italy.
– See See Gianluigi Nuzzi, Sua Saintita, La Carte Segrete di Benedetto XVI, 2012, trans. : Sa Sainteté, Scandale au Vatican, Privé, 2012 ; Marco Politi, Francesco tra i lupi, Gius, Laterza & Figli, 2014 ; trans. in French : François parmi les loups, ed. Philip Rey, 2015 ; French paperback (updated version) : François parmi les loups, Points, Seuil, 2015 (see : pp 303-323) ; See Gianluigi Nuzzi, Sua Saintita, La Carte Segrete di Benedetto XVI, 2012, trans. : Sa Sainteté, Scandale au Vatican, Privé, 2012.
– The articles from Boffo in Avvenire have been canceled by the publisher, but it is possible to find them on the Dark Web. See also : La Repubblica ; Corriere della Serra ; Corriere della Serra 2 ; La Repubblica 2 ; La Repubblica 3.
– For the press communiqué Vatican & CEI, see : « Communicato della segreteria di Stato » concerning the Boffo scandal, Feb. 10, 2010 (source here).
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 18, « La CEI» ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 17 « CEI ».

Brazil

◊ See also: Queer theology
André S. Musskopf : Musskpof is “a lay theologian, raised in the Lutheran tradition in Brazil from Sunday school to the seminary. He has been denied ordination by the Evangelical Church of Lutheran Confession in Brazil. He has subsequently focused on articulating a gay/queer theological discourse that rises from the experience of being gay/queer, struggling to open up Church settings.” (Source)
Fabio de Melo. Brazilian celebrity and Catholic priest. When legislation for same-sex marriage was debated in Brazil, he said it was not a matter of State on Twitter. 
Antonio Dias Duarte. Bishop in Rio de Janeiro. Has supported the official Vatican position against homosexuality.
Roberto Francisco Daniel. Excommunicated priest (in 2015). He was accused of heresy for contradicting various official positions of the Catholic Church, among them, he defended homosexuality.
Evangelical Church. Growing rapidly in Brazil and with factions that are much more open to homosexuality
Gay Churches in Brazil. In this academic article, an historical overview of Brazilian religious institutions, based in Christianity, that have been open to homosexuality, creating theological arguments for their position. 
Leonardo Steiner. Leader of the Brazilian Episcopal Conference. He has supported a legal enshrinement of same-sex unions, though without resorting to the word “marriage”.
Aldo di Cillo Pagotto. Former archbishop of Paraíba. He renounced his position in 2016 and though the causes were not made public, the press linked his resignation to his complicity in welcoming priests that had been accused of pedophilia. See also a French version here 
José Alfonso Dé. Deceased in 2016. Brazilian priest. Accused of pederasty. He was also accused in the film Spotlight.
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 22, « Dissidents» ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 21 « Dissidents ».

Bromance & Bro

– The terms “bromance” and “bros” are used to define a relation between men in a non-sexual context. For the most part, it is platonic. See the analysis by Wesley Morris for the New York Times.
{further readingThis subject is used mainly as background in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel or In the Closet of the Vatican.

Bruguès (Jean-Louis)

– Director Archivio Secreto Vaticano
◊ See also : Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana & Archivio Secreto Vaticano
– I read with pleasure his books : Jean-Louis Bruguès, Chemin Faisant, Entretiens spirituels, Éditions du Cerf, 2016 and Jean-Louis Bruguès, L’Église et la sexualité, Repères historiques et regards actuels, Cerf, 2006
– See also : Sébastien Maillard, « Bibliothècaire du Vatican et de l’humanité », La Croix, Feb. 16, 2016 ; See the preface by Jean-Louis Bruguès of the book Jacques, le combat de la vie : l’accompagnement spirituel d’un malade du sida : le journal de Marie-Christine et de Jacques, by Marie-Christine Nouaux and Jacques Ambec, directed by Jean-Louis Bruguès, Saint Paul publisher, 1996. See also : Jean-Louis Bruguès, “La question de l’homosexualité n’est pas d’abord religieuse”, La Croix, Nov 8, 2006.
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 8, « L’amour d’amitié» ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 8 « Love friendship ».

Burgazzi (Cesare)

– High speed car chase scandal (2006)
– Main reference : On this story, I use the Sentenza from La Corte Suprema di Cassazione sesta Sezione Penale, Udienza Pubblica, Jan 30, 2014, n°16444/14, 12 p.
– Nick Pisa, “Vatican priest who led police on high speed car chase after being caught in red light zone is cleared”, Daily Mail, Oct. 12, 2009.
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 11, « L’anneau de luxure » ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 11 « The Ring of lust ».

Burke (Cardinal)

– An American Cardinal.
About US Cardinal Burke, I mainly use his interviews and books. Among them : Guillaume d’Alançon, Entretien avec Burke, Artège, 2015. See also : Jason Horowitz, « Steve Bannon Carries Battles to Another Influential Hub : The Vatican », New York Times, Feb. 7, 2017 ; Interview with Matthew James Christoff, « Cardinal Raymond Leo Burke on the Catholic “Man-crisis” and what to do about it », The New Evangelization, Jan 5, 2015 ; « Gay couples shouldn’t be invited to family gatherings if children are present », in Life Site News, Oct 11, 2014 and « Cardinal Burke responds to Australian couple’s Synod presentation on family’s gay son ». See also : CNSNews ; CNSNews ; NCronline. See also his comment on the existence of a “very grave problem of homosexual culture in the Church” (here and here).
On US sexual abuses : Michael Sisak and Rachel Zoll, “Victim advocates seek Vatican inquiry of Cardinals Rigali & Burke”, Washington Times, Sept 2016 ; see also US News, Sept 16, 2016. See also : Malcolm Gay, “Immaculate Deception, Some Dirty Little Secrets Followed Archbishop Raymond Burke from Wisconsin to St. Louis”, Riverfront Times,August 25, 2004 (see BishopAccountability.org).
– On the war within the “Sovereign Military Order of Malta” : Jason Horowitz, “Ten Centuries Later, a Pope and Knights Do Battle”, New York Times, Jan 28, 2017 ; James Politi, “Knights dispute exposes Pope’s Ruthless streak”, Financial Times, Jan 28-29, 2017 ; Cécile Chambraud, “L’Ordre de Malte, la cagnotte Suisse et les adversaires du pape”, Le Monde, April 8, 2017 ; Cécile Chambraud, “Guerre ouverte au sein de l’ordre de Malte”, Le Monde, April 9-10, 2017 ; Cécile Chambraud, “Le pape François s’impose à l’Ordre de Malte”, Le Monde, Jan 25, 2017.
On Trump and Burke, see : Jason Horowitz, « Steve Bannon Carries Battles to Another Influential Hub : The Vatican », New York Times, Feb. 7, 2017. See also : Samuel Freedman, « “Church Militant Theology” Is Put To New, and Politicized, Use », New York Times, Dec 30, 2006 ; and an interesting point of view by Christopher Caldwell. For Steve Bannon, see the transcription of his speech at a symposium at the Vatican, via Skype : here.
On Cardinal Burke Support on the Viganò report, in August 26, 2018, see here. See also the Official reaction of the Dignitatis Humanae Institute (Cardinal Burke and Benjamin Harnwell) on the accusation of homosexuality to Cardinal Martino by Mgr Viganò (here).
On camp and dandysm, see : Susan Sontag, Notes on Camp, 1961, reed. Penguin Modern, 2018.
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 2, « La Théorie du genre » ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 2 « Gender Theory ».



— C —



Caffarra (Carlo)

– Cardinal, Archbishop of Bologna.
– On his mobilization against “DICO” (Italian civil unions) see : Jean-Jacques Bozonnet, “L’Eminence anti-pacs de Benoît XVI”, Le Monde, March 31, 2007.
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 5, « The Synode» ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 5 « The Synod ».


Cañizares (Antonio)

– Cardinal of Spain
– Cardinal of Valencia. He signed and co-wrote a letter against transexuality. Legal accusations for inciting to violence against minority groups has been made public.
About marriage: In 2014 Cañizares called for families to “promote and defend the unique and indivisible marriage between a man and a woman” and to “regain trust in themselves as the enormous hope for the futre” in spite of “irresponable and suicidal [policies], a byproduct of mainstream ideologies and culture” that do not help the family “but distort it”. “Family is a precious good, in the family based in the marriage of a man and a woman, the future is also based”. Therefore, marriage and family “should be promoted and defended not only by the State but also by the whole of society”.
– Against the “ideology of gender”, see : Toni Cuquerella, “Cañizares afirma que la fecundación artificial, el matrimonio gay y la ‘ideología de género’ desafían a la Constitución”, El Diaro, Dec 7, 2017.
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 16, « Rouco» ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 16 « Rouco ».

Capovilla (Loris Francesco)

– Assistant to the Pope John XXIII.
– Loris Capovilla, Mes années avec le Pape Jean XXIII, Conversations avec Ezio Bols, ed. des Béatitudes, 2014.
– There are rumors that Loris Capovilla, as the Pope’s secretary, insisted on opening the seminars to gay people. The source is journalist Piero Laporta. (See here).
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 8, « L’Amour d’amitié» ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 8 « Loving Friendship ».

Capozzi (Luigi)

– Cardinal Francesco Coccopalmerio’s secretary
◊ See also : Chem-Sex Parties
– He was found by the Vatican Gendarmerie while having gay parties with drugs inside an apartment in the building of the former Palace of the Holy Office. See : Il Fatto Quotidiano ; LifeSite ; and Heavy.com
– Some of the men of Dominio Giani, the Inspector General of the Corpo della Gendarmeria, had complained a few times about all the men that came and went from the former Palace of the Holy Office, where Luigi Capozzi held his parties. See: Il Fatto Quotidiano. See also : Le Cronache ; Positano News ; DiagoSpia ; Il Fatto Quotidiano.
– Rumors about Cardinal Coccopalmerio being close to Luigi Capozzi (here).
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 21, « Le Vice-pape» ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 20 « The Vice Pope ».

Carabinieri

◊ See: Police

Caravaggio (Le Caravage)

– Italian Painter.
◊ See also : Renaissance ; Leonardo da Vinci ; Michel-Ange.
– On Caravaggio, see Dominique Fernandez, Le Rapt de Ganymède, Grasset, 1989 (especially the chapter “Saint Sébastien, héros tutélaire”) ; I have also read by the same author, Dominique Fernandez, Amants d’Apollon, L’homosexualité dans la culture, Grasset, 2015 (see : “Florence, capitale de la culture gay”, pp. 116-129 ; and “Double Italie”, pp. 130-143). See also the interesting book by Olivier Wickers, Perdre le jour, Caravage en cinq actes, Exils/France Culture (see especially the chapter “Devenir” about Le Martyre de saint Matthieu). See also : Ingrid D. Rowland, The Virtuoso of Compassion”, New York Review of Books, May 11, 2017. See also : Terence Ward, The Guardian of Mercy : How an Extraordinary Painting by Caravaggio Changed an Ordinary Life Today, Arcade, 2016.
– See also the fictionalized biography by Dominique Fernandez, La Course à l’abîme, Grasset/Livre de Poche, 2005 ; the film Caravaggio by Derek Jarman (1986) about the love life of Caravaggio.
{further readingThis subject is developed in several chapters of Sodoma by Frédéric Martel and In the Closet of the Vatican.

Casaroli (Agostino)

– Italian Cardinal Secretary of State.
– Agostino Casaroli (1914-1998) was the cardinal secretary of State of John-Paul II from 1979 to 1990. He tried to have his deputy and friend, Mgr Silvestrini, succeed him when he retired, but John-Paul II favored Angelo Sodano instead. His main book is : Agostino Casaroli, The Martyrdom of Patience, ed. Ave Maria Centre of Peace, 2007.
Biography : I use Christophe Dickès, ed., Dictionnaire du Vatican et du Saint-Siège, Robert Laffont, Bouquins, 2013 (see: Casaroli).
On the financial scandal that might have implicated Casaroli and his assistant Mgr. Silvestrini, see : “Dans les coulisses du Vatican”, L’Express, Special Issue, Jan./March 2016 (“Les errements des banquiers de Dieu”, pp. 152-159). See also : Gianluigi Nuzzi, Vatican SA, Les archives secretes du Vatican, Hugo & C, 2011.
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 9, « Sacré Collège» ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 9 « The Sacred college ».

CEI – Conferenza Episcopale Italiana

(Italian Episcopal Conference)
◊ See : Boffo ; Bagnasco ; Italy.
– See the important “liberal” book by Italian Cardinale Carlo Maria Martini, Credere e conoscere, Einaudi, 2012.
– See Marco Politi, Francesco tra i lupi, Gius, Laterza & Figli, 2014 ; trans. in French : François parmi les loups, ed. Philip Rey, 2015 ; French paperback (updated version) : François parmi les loups, Points, Seuil, 2015 (see : pp 30-31 ; p. 59 ; pp. 303-323).
– On the long history of homosexuality of Italians Bishops see, for the pontificate of Pope Pius XI : David Kertzer, The Pope and Mussolini : The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe, Random House, 2015 (Kertzer discovered Mussolini’s secret police files about the homosexuality of the entourage of Pope Pius XI).
– On the “Progetto Culturale della CEI”. The project is no longer active, but the website has many documents about its past activities : “Without sexual differences there’s no family” (source): this was published on February 20th 2013 on L’Avvenire and is against the recent sentences of the European Court of Human Rights about LGBT family (the article says that a child can’t have three parents and that there must be a clear distinction between male and female) ; Here a long dossier by “Servizio Nazionale Per il Progetto Culturale della Conferenze Episcopale Italiana”, in which, among other information, Andrea Galli interviewed the British philosopher Roger Scruton, who took part in a meeting about God organized by the CEI in 2009 ; another part of the dossier is titled “Bioethics, stop the double morals” – it is a dialogue between the politician Giuseppe Vacca and the legal expert Francesco D’Agostino (excerpt : “Marriage can’t be reduced to an economic relationship. That’s the reason why there’s no legal reason to protect homosexual couples – or even recognize them as spouse couples – because they are unions that can’t procreate. The demand of adoption hides the mimetic desire of these couples” ; On July 4th 2015 the Progetto Culturale della CEI organized a symposium titled “Sentimental relationships: Desire, fantasies and reality : a discussion about the masculine and the feminine” (among the speaker there were Vittorio Sozzi of the School CEI office, don Paolo Gentili of the Ufficio Pastorale Famiglia CEI. One of the themes was: “Gender in school: what are the main consequences on the new generations?”). On April 23th 2015, the CEI hosted the presentation of the book “Nature and culture on Gender” by Fiorenzo Facchini – Edizioni Dehoniane, Bologna, 2015 (the book is clearly against the concept of “gender”, Fiorenzo Fiacchini is a priest and an anthropologist) ; On May 2017, the CEI took part in the Book Fair of Torino and hosted some meetings. One of them was untitled: “He created them Male and Female. The end of sexual differences” with Chiara Saraceno of the University of Torino and Lucetta Scaraffia of  Università di Roma La Sapienza ; On September 21st 2013 in Verona the CEI took part in the event organized by the association Family Tomorrow (Famiglia Domani) and the European Movement in Defence of Like and Human Dignity titled “Gender Theory: for the man or against the man?”. The topics were around homosexuality, gender theory : among them, one was entitled : « Gender ideology and homosexualism: towards a new totalitarism?” and another : “The new human rights according to the UN: an aggression against the natural society”.
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 18, « La CEI» ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 17 « CEI ».

CELAM

◊ For Medellin, see Colombia ; For Puebla, see Mexico ; For Aparecida, see below. See also : Pope Francis ; Cardinal Lòpez-Trujillo.
– Carl Bernstein and Marco Politi, Sa Sainteté Jean-Paul II et l’histoire cachée de notre époque, Plon, 1996 (on CELAM, see p. 172).
– CELAM in Aparecida : Ernesto Cavassa, “On the Trail of Aparecida : Jorge Bergoglio and the Latin American ecclesial tradition”, America Magazine (Jesuit revue), Oct 30, 2013
– Cardinal Bergoglio/Pope Francis and CELAM : Marco Politi, Francesco tra i lupi, Gius, Laterza & Figli, 2014 ; trans. in French : François parmi les loups, ed. Philip Rey, 2015 ; French paperback (updated version) : François parmi les loups, Points, Seuil, 2015 (see : pp. 12-24 ; 177-207) ; Austen Ivereigh, The Great Reformer : Francis and the Making of a radical pope, Henry Holt, 2014 ; Jim Yardley, “A Humble Pope, Challenging the world”, New York Times, Sept 19-20, 2015 ; James Carroll, “Who I am To Judge ?”, The New Yorker, Dec 23-30, 2013.
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 13, « La Croisade contre les gays» ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 13 « The Crusade against gays ».

Celibacy of priests & Chastity

– See Marco Marzano, “Il celibate dei preti è una finzione”, Sept. 24, 2015 : Il Fatto ; Sguotti Sante, Prete pedofilo si diventa. Pedofilia e celibato nella Chiesa di Papa Francesco, La Zisa, 2015 (see here).
– See Ratzinger, Introduction to Christianity, trans. in French : Chemins vers Jesus (see especially the chapter on Gandhi). J. Ratzinger was fascinated by Gandhi’s choice of celibacy. He invited Gandhi is grandson to the Vatican. A recent biography tells of Gandhi’s possible “homophily” (see: Joseph Lelyveld, Great Soul, Mahatma Gandhi and his struggle with India, especially pp. 79-104. I also found the letters between Gandhi and his friend Kallenbach in South Africa, see my book F. Martel, Global Gay, Flammarion, 2013. See also this article in the New York Times.)
– Celibacy and sex abuses : Report on Catholic sexual abuse partly caused by secrecy and mandatory celibacy. Report examined findings of 26 royal commissions and inquiries from Australia, Ireland, the UK, Canada and Netherlands (source).
{further readingThis subject is developed in several chapters of Sodoma/ In the Closet of the Vatican by Frédéric Martel.

Charamsa (Krzysztof)

– Former priest in the Vatican
◊ See Congregation of the Doctrine of the Faith ; pope Benedict XVI ; José Mantero.
– Krzysztof Charamsa, La première pierre, Moi, Prêtre gay face à l’hypocrisie de l’église, La Découverte, 2017.
– See also : Elena Tebano, “La Confessione del monsignore : Sono gay e ho un compagno”, Corriere della Sera, Ottobre 3, 2015 (original interview) ; Gaia Pianigiani, “Gay Priest Who Lost Vatican Job Assails the Church in Letter to Pope Francis”, New York Times, Oct. 28, 2015 ; and L’Obs.
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 13, « La Croisade contre les gays» ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 13 « The Crusade againsts gays ».

Chem Sex Parties in the Vatican

◊ See also : Capozzi (Luigi).
– On the scandal of Chem Sex Parties inside the Vatican (Luigi Capozzi was found by the Vatican Gendarmerie while having gay parties with drugs inside an apartment in the building of the former Palace of the Holy Office), read : Francesco Antonio Grana, “Vaticano, fermato un monsignore: festini gay e droga al Palazzo dell’ex Sant’Uffizio”, Il Fatto Quotidiano, June 28, 2017 ; See also, on Luigi Capozzi : LifeSite and NCRegister. See : Il Fatto Quotidiano ; LifeSite ; and Heavy.com
– Some of the men of Dominio Giani, the Inspector General of the Corpo della Gendarmeria, had complained a few times about all the men that came and went from the former Palace of the Holy Office, where Luigi Capozzi held his parties. See: Il Fatto Quotidiano. See also : Le Cronache ; Positano News ; DiagoSpia ; Il Fatto Quotidiano.
– Rumors about Cardinal Coccopalmerio being close to Luigi Capozzi (here).
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 21, « Le Vice Papa» ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 20 « The Vice-pope ».

Chile

◊ See: Cardinal Angelo Sodano ; Cardinal Jorge Medina ; Errázuriz, Francisco Javier ; Ezzati, Ricardo ; Gay issue, Pinochet and the Church in Chile ; Papal visit to Chile and Peru 2018; Sexual abuse in the Chilean Church.
General sources : Carl Bernstein and Marco Politi, Sa Sainteté Jean-Paul II et l’histoire cachée de notre époque, Plon, 1996 (on Sodano and Fresno, pp. 381-399).
The Church and Pinochet’s regime. Some of the most important works on the Chilean Church during Augusto Pinochet’s regime (1973-90) include: Enrique Correa, and José Antonio Viera-Gallo, Iglesia y dictadura, Santiago de Chile, CESOC, 1986 ; Brian H. Smith, The Church and Politics in Chile: Challenges to Modern Catholicism, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1992 ; David Fernández, La “Iglesia” que resistió a Pinochet, Madridn, IEPALA, 1996 ; Rafael Otano, Nueva crónica de la transición, LOM, 2006 ; Álvaro Ramis, “Las iglesias y la dictadura chilena,” Le Monde Diplomatique (Chilean edition), Sep. 2013 ; Veit Strassner, “La Iglesia chilena desde 1973 a 1993,” Teología y vida, 47 (2006) ; Hugo Cancino, Chile: Iglesia y dictadura, 1973-1989, Odense, Odense University Press, 1997.
– More general books on the Chilean dictatorship consulted: Ascanio Cavallo, Manuel Salazar, and Oscar Sepúlveda, La historia oculta del régimen military, Santiago de Chile, Uqbar, 2008 ; Carlos Huneeus, El régimen de Pinochet, Santiago de Chile, Taurus, 2016 ; Peter Kornbluh, The Pinochet file: a declassified dossier on atrocity and accountability, The New Press, 2004.
Raúl Silva Henríquez. Cardinal archbishop of Santiago (1961-1983), he led the Chilean Church for over two decades and also played a prominent role in the Latin American episcopate since his outstanding participation in the Second Vatican Council. He had a key position during Pinochet’s dictatorship, not only within the Church but also leading the opposition to the regime. In 1973, Silva created along with other Christian churches the Committee for Peace (Comité Pro Paz), the first human rights organization in Chile, with the aim of protecting the victims of Pinochet. In 1975, the Committee closed due to government pressures, but Silva required Pope Paul VI to open a Vicariate of Solidarity guided by the same principles. As Archbishop of Santiago, he preached harsh homilies condemning institutional violence. His determined position against Pinochet caused him to have a long dispute with the then nuncio Angelo Sodano, who had an opposite view on the role of the Church in dictatorship. In 1982, when Silva turned 75, Pope John Paul II rapidly accepted his resignation. See: Raúl Silva Henríquez, Memorias, vol. 1-3, Santiago de Chile, Copygraph, 1991-94; Ascanio Cavallo, Manuel Salazar, and Oscar Sepúlveda, La historia oculta del régimen militar, Santiago de Chile, Uqbar, 2008; Rafael Otano, Nueva crónica de la transición, Santiago de Chile, LOM, 2006; Carlos Peña, “Cosas de cardenales”, El Mercurio, Sep. 9, 2007.
Cristián Precht : As the head of the Committee for Peace and the Vicariate of Solidarity (1974-79), he was a symbol in the defense of human rights during Augusto Pinochet’s regime, and one of the most respected and influential Chilean priests. In 2012, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith found him guilty of “abusive conduct” with adults and minors. • His public role as Vicar of Solidarity made him a strong candidate to the episcopate, but Angelo Sodano systematically blocked his appointment. Pinochet did the same putting pressure on the Vatican to avoid his promotion. Disputes with Sodano also occurred during the preparation of Pope John Paul II’s visit to Chile in 1978. Sodano was nuncio to Chile and Precht was a member of the organizing committee, in charge of liturgy. The nuncio wanted to avoid any mention or gesture on the human rights situation that could have disturbed Pinochet. • In 2011, Santiago Archbishop Ricardo Ezzati received a report accusing Precht of having abused a student, Patricio Vela, who took his own life in 1991. The alleged molestations would have begun in the late 1970s and continued throughout the 1980s. The archdiocese dismissed the case based on a lack of evidence of sexual abuse against a minor. However, the investigation revealed another 20 independent testimonies of sexual abuse of males between 15 and 35 years old when they were attacked. The Vatican found Precht guilty and Cardinal Ezzati sentenced him to a five-year suspension from ministry – a minimal penalty considering that the judicial vicar recommended a life sentence. Precht fulfilled his canonical sentence in December 2017. Three months later, five former students of a Marist Brothers school in Santiago filed a criminal complaint against five priests, including Precht. They are accused of “illicit association” (conspiracy), indirect and direct sexual abuse and favoring prostitution of minors. Three alleged victims testified against Precht in civil court and before Cardinal Charles Scicluna, Papal envoy to investigate clerical sexual abuses in Chile. According to them, Precht witnessed the groping of a 12-year-old student by a group of priests and Marist brothers. He was also accused of attacking two other students during confession. They also said that Precht was an accomplice of the abuses committed by Miguel Ortega, former vicar for the youth, with whom he lived. See Precht’s biography by the journalist Andrea Lagos, Las culpas del vicario, Santiago de Chile, Catalonia/UDP, 2017.
– Gay issue, Pinochet and the Church in Chile : The military regime of Augusto Pinochet (1973-90) had an ultraconservative orientation on social issues and at the same time imposed neoliberal policies in the economic field with the support of civilians. “The way the dictatorship acted on homosexual men an women, in general, was rather indirect,” according to the writer and journalist Óscar Contardo (Raro, una historia gay de Chile, Santiago de Chile, Planeta, 2011). At the same time, the regime reinforced cultural uniformity as a value and imposed fear on anyone who would develop a dissident way of life. Since the 1970s, most of the Chilean elite “took refuge in conservative Catholic groups and movements. This process gained strength in dictatorship and a greater momentum under Pope John Paul II, who promoted spiritual movements devoid of social criticism. In such a society, any challenge to the moral and gender conventions established by the Catholic tradition provoked alarm.” However, Pablo Simonetti, writer and founder of the LGBT organization Iguales, agrees that Pinochet did not persecute or repress homosexuals in a special way, nor did police harassment occur more intensely than before. The previous socialist government of Salvador Allende (1970-73) and the left, in general, were also extremely homophobic. But during the dictatorship, gay people were not seen as an articulated opposition or a group with an ideological agenda and, therefore, a danger. • In the late 1970s, in the midst of the military regime, a gay scene re-emerged in private clubs, discotheques and bars of Santiago, after years of blackout of the nightlife by the imposition of the curfew. At that time, however, gay nightlife exclusively aimed at gay consumption and was not accompanied by a political movement. Pro- and anti-Pinochet gays alike participated. • The regime admitted a gay circuit with relative openness, although clubs frequently suffered police raids. Fausto was the first gay club in South America, oriented toward upper-class gay men, artists and TV stars. The police and the press paid special attention to it – police raids were quite frequent, despite one of the owners having a bronther in the police – but the authorities never closed it. Quasar, a more underground working-class club, was co-owned by a former officer of the Investigative Police and it was located meters away from a military unit. A small bunch of policemen was among its clients, according to some people who frequented it. A 70-year old gay man also remembers the existence of a place located in one of the most expensive neighborhoods of Santiago that was the favorite of the military crowd. • The first stable group of gay men, Betania, was organized in 1977 by Catholic professionals who sought to reconcile their religious beliefs with their sexual orientation. The group had the guidance of the Dutch priest Cornelio Lemmers. According to Contardo, the activity was not clandestine. In those days, the Church was living a relative openness motivated by the impact of the Second Vatican Council and the agitation period until the death of Paul VI. Lemmers even recalled that the auxiliary Bishop of Santiago Sergio Valech was well aware of his work. The group, however, did not have the activist or political agenda of the LGBT movement in the US and Western Europe. After John Paul II, the conservative orientation of the Church made it impossible for the group to seek support and acceptance within the institution. Father Cornelio Lemmers was assigned outside of Santiago and soon the group disintegrated.
– Bibliography on this subject, see : Óscar Contardo, Raro, una historia gay de Chile, Santiago de Chile, Planeta, 2011 ; Víctor Hugo Robles, Bandera hueca: historia del movimiento homosexual en Chile, Santiago de Chile, Arcis/Cuarto Propio, 2008 and banderahueca.blogspot.cl ; Juan Pablo Sutherland, A corazón abierto: geografía literaria de la homosexualidad en Chile, Santiago de Chile, Sudamericana, 2001 and, the same writer, Nación marica, Santiago de Chile, Ripio, 2009 ; Gonzalo Salazar, El deseo invisible, Santiago de Chile, Cuarto Propio, 2017.
Jaime Guzmán is considered the main civil ideologist of Pinochet’s regime. He drafted the 1980 Constitution that has shaped the Chilean political system until now. Even today, his sexual orientation is controversial, although there is no evidence of his homosexuality. Extremely Catholic, he attended daily mass and had close ties to the most conservative groups within the Church. Guzmán’s homosexuality was a matter of concern for Pinochet’s intelligence apparatus, the powerful DINA. A 1976 memorandum contained a special section entitled “Homosexuality” with a list of close friends of Guzmán who were “international” (sic) or “recognized” homosexuals. However, beyond his friends, in the leaked files there is no information of him being homosexual. The fiction film The Uncle (2013), starring Guzman’s nephew, insinuates his bromances. Cardinal Jorge Medina remembered Guzmán, in relation to same-sex unions, saying that his “friend” would have agreed that homosexuality is “aberrant, a serious depravity.”Guzmán was killed in 1991 by members of a communist guerrilla organization. He had been a democratically elected senator.
– Guzmán was the main civil ideologist of the dictatorship, but he had no relevant official position during the regime. Even today there is a great controversy about his sexual orientation. Popular culture raised him as a icon closeted gay of the extreme-right Catholic, but no evidence of his homosexuality has been found.
As a lawyer and constitutional law professor at the Catholic University, and one of Pinochet’s most influential advisors, he drafted the 1980 Constitution that conditioned the Chilean political system in democracy. Influenced by the political ideas of Carl Schmitt and F.A. Hayek’s liberalism, he was the mind behind the gremialismo (liberal-conservative movement, corporate doctrine) and founder of the UDI, a right-wing conservative party that supported Pinochet’s regime in the 1980s and now is part of President Sebastián Piñera’s coalition. • Guzmán was democratically elected senator in 1990. A year later, he was killed by members of the communist guerrilla Frente Patrótico Manuel Rodríguez. • Guzmán was extremely Catholic (he attended daily mass), close to the ultra-conservative groups (Opus Dei, Father Karadima’s church, Cardinal Jorge Medina) and a fierce opponent of Cardinal Silva Henríquez, the CELAM and liberation theology. • Secret documents of the DINA (National Intelligence Directorate, Pinochet’s secret police until 1977) revealed that Guzman was not only a target of espionage by the regime, but also that there were suspicions about his homosexuality. A 1976 memo contained a special section entitled “Homosexuality” with a list of close friends and relationshipsán. The list includes an “international homosexual” who is close to Guzmán and a “recognized homosexual”. The document is mentioned in Óscar Contardo’s book Raro, a history of homosexuality in Chile. Despite the large intelligence apparatus of the dictatorship, no concrete evidence of gay relationships is mentioned.• A nephew of Guzmán, the actor Ignacio Santa Cruz, starred the film The Uncle (2013) and also a biographic play, and both of them insinuate his homosexuality. The nephew did thorough research on Guzmán and he did not find any sexual partner or relationship. “Facing his sexuality was an impossible issue for him being the public figure he was and having the mother he had,” the nephew said. For him, most likely he was celibate. • In 2013, in a letter to the President of the Senate, Cardinal Jorge Medina opposed the civil union law expressing that homosexuality is “aberrant, a serious depravity…” and he added: “I am sure our common friend Jaime Guzmán would have agreed with my statements.”
– Literature has also treated the case of Francisco Javier Cuadra, Pinochet’s minister and spokesman, and also ambassador to the Holy See. Marcelo Leonart wrote the novel La Patria (Santiago de Chile, Tajamar, 2012). In his fiction work, the author portrayed Cuadra as a “hedonistic homosexual.”
– Regarding the resounding case of Father Fernando Karadima, convicted of sexual abuse by the Vatican, witnesses mentioned Rodrigo Serrano Bombal as a key figure in the link between the powerful priest and Pinochet’s regime. Serrano was so relevant in Karadima’s parish that he was nicknamed “the little king” – Karadima was known as “the king” –, and he used to stay at the parish until dawn. (María Olivia Monckeberg, Karadima: el señor de los infiernos, Santiago de Chile, Debate, 2011).
Sexual abuse in the Chilean Church : Sexual abuse cases perpetrated by priests have been a cornerstone in the current relationship between the Church and Chilean society. Since the first priest was convicted for sexually abusing children in the early 2000s, José Andrés Aguirre, known as “Father Tato”, to Pope Francis’ attacks and requests for forgiveness to the victims of Father Fernando Karadima during his 2018 trip to Chile and Peru, the institution sank into a critical situation. Once prestigious for its defense of human rights and democracy during the dictatorship of Pinochet in the 1970s and 80s, the Chilean Church’s reputation is now seriously affected after new cases are uncovered every month with the cover-up of Bishops and other authorities. A survey conducted by Latinobarómetro in 2017 indicates that the confidence of Chileans in the Catholic Church is only 36%, falling from an 80% in 1996 and with the biggest decrease in 2011, when Karadima’s case became known.
BishopAccountability.org has documented nearly 120 clergymen publicly accused of sexually abusing minors in Chile. The list only collects information from media coverage and court fillings of cases having occurred since 2000. According to this American organization, “is a fraction of the total number of accused clerics who would be known if Chile’s Church leaders were required to report to law enforcement.”
– The newspaper La Tercera also counted 80 clergymen and a nun accused of sexual abuse in the last 15 years. Among them, there are four bishops and a provincial superior of the Jesuits. The list does not include priests accused of cover-up, abuse of power or other crimes. Only 45 of them were found guilty by Chilean or the Vatican courts, and 11 cases remain pending resolution.
– In 2011, the Chilean Bishops’ conference created a council for prevention of abuse and accompaniment of victims. The council published a list of “publicly informed” clerics who have been sentenced, both in criminal and ecclesial justice, for crimes against minors. The document only reports on the number of convicted clerics, 33, but no names are mentioned. According to a press report, when Cardinal Ricardo Ezzati assumed the presidency of the Bishops’ conference, he ordered the names of the implicated clerics to be removed from the website. In any case, the list has numerous omissions.
– In 2015, the Chilean Bishops’ conference issued guidelines to deal with the cases of sexual abuse of minors that were approved by all the dioceses of the country. The document, Care and Hope, has serious omissions, according to BishopsAccountability.org. For instance, it contains no zero tolerance provision. In addition, it does not require the bishops to inform law enforcement of sex crimes, but it makes the victims, their relatives, and caregivers responsible for reporting.
Fernando Karadima. Priest and sexual abuser convicted by the Vatican before he was further investigated by Chilean justice. A movie was made about this case. [See also in this bibliography the main source : Karadima]
Overall scandal (2018) : see the numerous articles by Cecile Chambraud for Le Monde : “Le pape reconnaît des dérives au sein de l’épiscopat chilien” (see ici) ; “Pédophilie : le pape François tancé par un cardinal” (ici) ; “La douleur et la honte du pape face à la pédophilie” (ici). Resignation of all bishops : Le Monde ; See also the series, by Cecile Chambraud as well, for Le Monde : Part I : Fernando Karadima, le « saint » prédateur de l’Eglise du Chili », Le Monde, August 21, 2018 ; Part II : “Tu ne parleras point”, Le Monde, August 23, 2018.
Pinochet key advisers : Jaime Guzmán ; Francisco Javier Cuadra ; Sergio Rillón ; Osvaldo Rivera ; Rodrigo Serrano… See below :
– Francisco Javier Cuadra : Cuadra was a key official of the dictatorship during the 1980s and has been mentioned by different sources as a closeted homosexual. However, there is no public evidence of this assertion. He is divorced with 8 children. • He was minister and spokesman of Pinochet (1984-87) after working with Sergio Rillón in the office in charge of Government-Church relations. In those years, he concentrated much power and was the kind face of the dictatorship before the media and public opinion. In 1987, he was appointed ambassador to the Holy See and, in democracy, rector of the Diego Portales University in Santiago. He lasted a few months in office after many questionings of his role during the dictatorship. Marcelo Leonart’s novel La Patria (2012) is said to have Cuadra as its main character, a lonely hedonistic person with men bromances. The fiction work caused quite a stir but received no objection to this characterization of Cuadra.
• Sergio Rillón : Contrary to a rumor, Sergio Rillón has never been ambassador to the Vatican. Pinochet had only two : Héctor Riesle (1974-1987) and Francisco Javier Cuadra (1987-1990 – who worked with Rillón and was appointed there thanks to him). But Rillón did frequently travel to Rome during the 80s to speak directly to Vatican authorities on behalf of Pinochet, bypassing the Chilean Church. • However, Rillón was one of Pinochet’s top advisors and remained close to him until the death of the dictator. He commanded the office in charge of Church-State relations, where he cultivated a close relationship with Sodano. He attended Father Karadima’s church along with Sodano. • A retired marine captain and lawyer, Rillón was an advisor since the beginning of the dictatorship. He wrote the government junta’s act of constitution that ‘legally’ imposed Pinochet as head of State (source here) and worked in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs as an advisor on human rights issues. • He was a high-level (but low profile) civil advisor to Pinochet and the military regime from the beginning of the dictatorship and after, during the democratic period. • In the 1980s, he was appointed director of special affairs, a liaison office between the government and the Church. At that time, he became very close to Angelo Sodano despite the tension between the local Church and the military regime. • Around 1976, he was an advisor of the regime’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs and worked on issues related to the international complaints about the human rights situation in Chile (especially after Jimmy Carter’s election) [source here] • Around 1981, he began to serve as Pinochet’s advisor in charge of the Special Affairs Office (oficina de Asuntos Especiales). He was in charge of the liaison between the regime and the Catholic Church. His office operated in La Moneda (presidential palace). At that time, he became close to Sodano, in a context of an extreme tension between the local church and the military regime. (However, according to other sources, this relationship was not always fluid and they had some disagreements). • He frequented Father Fernando Karadima’s parish of El Bosque, core of the hardest and ultraconservative sector of the Church that supported Pinochet. Victims of Karadima’s sexual abuse testified that Sodano, Rillón and Karadima met frequently to discuss the appointment of bishops and priests and exchange information. • After the return of democracy, he publicly criticized the decriminalization of “sodomy” and unconditionally supported Karadima despite multiple allegations of sexual abuse against young men. (Most of this information here is from María Olivia Monckeberg’s book Karadima, El señor de los infiernos. See excerpts below.)
– In an interview (2006), Rillón said: “It can’t be said that Sodano was a Pinochetist, […] he is an eminently ecclesiastical man, with a universal vision of the Church, and he deeply knows its history. Sodano was a balanced man that had to work in one of the most difficult periods, when the bipolarity of the Cold War was a reality, both internally and externally”.
– During the 80s, Rillón and Sodano both frequented the church of El Bosque and the priest Fernando Karadima. James Hamilton, who was a direct witness of these encounters (and one of the victims of Karadima), said that he heard how the three of them together defined the priests who were going to be the new bishops of the Chilean Church. The meetings occurred during the entire period in which Sodano was in Chile, to the point that one room inside the church was named “the Nuncio’s room” because it was the place where they usually met. (The testimony of Juan Carlo Cruz, a victim of Karadima, has confirmed to us all these points).
– During the 80s, Pinochet offered him important positions in the cabinet, but he rejected them because of his low-profile style. Instead, he recommended his friends and collaborators for those positions. At that time, Pinochet already considered him a friend and they used to hold conversations for hours. (source)
– After the recovery of democracy (1990), Rillón was a member of the Advisory Committee of the Army’s Commander-in-Chief (Pinochet continued being the Commander-in-Chief until 1998).
– Later, he was an advisor to Pinochet when the dictator was appointed ‘Senator for life’ (1998-2002). At that time, Pinochet was arrested in London.
– Homosexuality: In 2009, El Mercurio (the main Chilean newspaper, conservative) published a letter to the editor signed by Sergio Rillón, in which he strongly rejected a TV spot from the campaign of Sebastián Piñera (then, elected president), where the candidate appears hugging a gay couple talking about “acceptance” and “respect” (Luis Larraín was one of them). Rillón wrote: “The issue has reached such a point – unprecedented in Chile – that it was incorporated into the candidates’ programs […]. The images impress us by the ostensible normality the protagonists show: youth, sanity and appearance [sic]. These factors contribute to dilute or weaken the arguments that are against putting this situation on the same level of a relationship analog to marriage in our legal and social system. This has the obvious consequence of encouraging young people not to oppose discipline to such tendencies and behaviors. To avoid this damage from scandal, it is imperative to delve into the affective environment of two people of the same sex. It can reach sublime levels and, in general, it is known as friendship. ‘Grater love has no one than this: to lay down one’s life for one’s friend’ (John 15:13), Christ teaches. […] The problem is to convert this friendship of empathy with an affective content to a physical projection of carnal union in the broad sense, but more specifically in the act of sodomy. This is the central point of conflict, because even when ‘progressive’ legislators, or rather ‘regressive’, have decriminalized this act, it remains contrary to the nature and the reason, supported by both pagan and Judeo-Christian history.” Rillón finishes the letter quoting different verses from the Bible (Leviticus 18:22; Romans 1:26; Corinthians 6:9; Genesis 1:27; Genesis 2:24). (Source).
– A year later (June 2010), Rillón wrote another letter to El Mercurio unconditionally supporting Karadima after the scandal became public: “I have been a parishioner of the church of the Sacred Heart of El Bosque since 1976 and I have always had a great admiration and affection for the accused priest. I have always considered him a profound man of God and an unconditional devotee of the Most Holy Virgin. I will not change this conviction whatever the outcome of the prosecution in progress”. (This is quoted in Monckeberg’s book)
– Osvaldo Rivera : Rivera was a powerful civil official during a period of the dictatorship. He was in charge of censorship and the control apparatus against free media. He knew Sodano well and they had a social and institutional relationship. In his youth, he joined the military government and climbed to become National Director of Communications (1983-85), the section that applied censorship to the media, free press, and artworks. Later, he became director of the public television (TVN) and after leaving official positions, he worked as a spy abroad, according to a press article. Upon the return of democracy, he directed the cultural section of the commune of Providencia in Santiago. He left office amid corruption scandals.
Rodrigo Serrano Bombal : Serrano is a former Navy reserve officer who served at the office in charge of Church-State relations commanded by Sergio Rillón during the dictatorship. He was also head of the cabinet at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. A former private secretary of Karadima testified before the court that he “heard about Serrano being linked to the DINA,” Pinochet’s secret police. Francisco Prochaska, a layman who lived with Karadima and assisted him, said: “Once the Father [Karadima] told me that we had to keep the young people away from Serrano because he was ‘dangerous’ (…). Later, four young men of El Bosque, who were always close to Rodrigo Serrano, told that they were going to travel with him […] to Europe and that he would pay the ticket and expenses.” But Karadima managed to abort the plans. According to Serrano’s testimony before the judge in Karadima’s trial, he was close to the then-nuncio Angelo Sodano: “I have traveled to Rome, I have had ties to the Vatican State and I have done advisory work to it in relation to my friendship with the Nuncio to Chile and Secretary of State, Angelo Sodano.” (Juan Andrés Guzmán, Gustavo Villarrubia, and Mónica González, Los secretos del imperio Karadima, Santiago de Chile, Catalonia/UDP, 2011)
– Serrano was part of Father Karadima’s circle and traveled with him to Europe, as was proven in trial. Serrano testified that he knew Sodano very well and thanks to this friendship he advised in Rome. He is single and cultural manager in the commune of Vitacura in Santiago. He was a member of Fiducia, a traditionalist anti-liberal conservative group that later originated the local chapter of the Tradition, Family and Property movement. He joined the Catholic Action at Karadima’s parish in 1980 and soon became part of the most intimate circle of the priest. Juan Carlos Cruz said that Serrano was so relevant in El Bosque that he was nicknamed “the little king”, while Karadima was called “the king” by the members of his parish (this testimony is part of M.O. Monckeberg’s and Mónica González’s books). Serrano joined Sodano and Karadima’s meetings, and also had private encounters with the priest. According to González’s book, he usually had dinner at the parish and sometimes he stayed until dawn. • 
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 9, « Sacré College » ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 9 « The Sacred College ».

Chile (Papal visit to Chile and Peru 2018)

◊ See: Cardinal Errázuriz, Francisco Javier ; Karadima ; Cardinal Angelo Sodano.
– Pope Francis’ trip to Chile and Peru in January 2018 (the sixth to the Americas) has been considered the most controversial travel of his papacy. Even before the Pope’s arrival, the issue of sex abuse and church cover-up scandals tinged the trip. “It will not be an easy visit,” Secretary of State, Pietro Parolin, said before embarking to Chile. Chile received Bergoglio with an extremely divided Church and, among the population, a credibility in free fall. The symbol of the crisis was the Bishop of Osorno, Juan Barros, accused of covering up the crimes of the country’s most notorious pedophile priest, Fernando Karadima. The community of Osorno and the Karadima plaintiffs had been strongly opposing Barros’ bishopric. The Pope failed to calm the waters. During his trip, Francis spoke four times in public about sexual abuse by clerics. In Peru, the visit was more successful, but the case of abuse and corruption by the Sodalitium – a powerful and elite society of apostolic life – was still present.
“Pain and shame”. In the presidential palace in Santiago, in front of President Michelle Bachelet, Pope Francis said: “Here I feel bound to express my pain and shame, shame at the irreparable damage caused to children by some ministers of the Church.” The same morning, the controversial Bishop Juan Barros was part of the first papal mass in the country (as he was in the rest of public events). His presence was widely questioned and seen as contradictory to Bergoglio’s statement. In a message addressed to priests and nuns in Santiago’s cathedral, Bergoglio compared the “harm and suffering” of the victims to the “pain for you, brothers, who […] have seen the harm caused by suspicion and questioning […] that by going around in clerical attire in many places you pay a heavy price.”
Francis also had a “strictly private” meeting with a small group of victims of sexual abuse by priests, according to the Vatican spokesman Greg Burke. However, the Pope refused to have a meeting with victims of Karadima who asked for it on many occasions.
“It’s calumny”. Questioned by reporters about Bishop Juan Barros in his last public mass in Chile, Pope Francis claimed: “The day they bring me proof against Bishop Barros, then I will speak. But there is not a single proof against him. It’s calumny. Is that clear?” Simultaneously, Barros was saying: “The Pope expressed his support and affection to me.”
– During the return flight to Rome, Bergoglio gave a press conference and spent most of it talking about the Barros case. When a reporter asked him why did he believe more in the testimony of Barros than the victims, the Pope answered: “I had the case studied […] and, really, there is no evidence […] of guilt. […] So, based on the lack of evidence, I expect a piece of evidence to change my position. Otherwise, I apply a basic legal principle in every court: memo malus nisi probetur: nobody is bad unless it is proven. And here comes the word ‘proof’ [prueba, in Spanish] which I think is the one that played me the dirty trick. […] I would rather talk about ‘evidence’ instead and, of course, I know there are many abused people who cannot bring proof […] but also because I am convinced that he is innocent.”
About the victims, Bergoglio said: “They did not come, they have not given the evidence for trial, […] they did not show up. […] We must be clear in this: somebody who accuses without evidence, with obstinacy, this is calumny.”
The evidence against bishop Barros existed. Despite what Pope Francis said, the victims of Karadima offered their formal testimony several times.
– In the criminal case against Karadima, they claimed that Barros witnessed abuse (Judge Jessica González established the veracity of the facts and that their testimonies were “truthful” and “reliable”).
– In February 2015, Juan Carlos Cruz sent a letter to the Nuncio Ivo Scapolo with a formal complaint against Barros, with copy to the Pope and the Vatican’s congregations. Cruz accused Barros of destroying the first testimony against Karadima and of threatening him, apart from being present when the priest committed sexual abuse.
Cardinal O’Malley rebuked the Pope : The Archbishop of Boston and President of the Pontifical Commission for the Protection of Minors, Seán O’Malley, questioned the Pope’s words. In a statement, he wrote: “[Pope’s] Words […] abandon those who have suffered reprehensible criminal violations of their human dignity and relegate survivors to discredited exile. […] I cannot address why the Holy Father chose the particular words he used at that time.”
The retraction : Once in Rome, the Vatican announced that the Pope arranged for Archbishop Charles Scicluna, considered the most respected sex crimes prosecutor of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, “to go to Santiago de Chile to hear those who have expressed their willingness to submit elements” regarding the case of Barros. Scicluna traveled to Santiago and New York to hear 64 testimonies and produce a 2,300-page report. As a result, in April 2018, Francis addressed a letter to Chile’s bishop (see the original letter in Spanish). After a “slow reading” of the report, he concluded: “I have made serious mistakes in the judgment and perception of the situation, specially due to a lack of truthful and balanced information.” In an unprecedented measure, he called all the Chilean bishops to Rome, and also invited the victims to meet him.
Who provided “untruthful and unbalanced” information? Although it is widely documented that the Pope timely received information disqualifying Barros, Francis’ words revealed the existence of peope who provided him biased interpretations. While the bishops’ conference stated that they gave “the right” information, there are many speculations about who was behind it. In the press, three persons have been mentioned as potentially responsible: 1) Cardinal Francisco Javier Errázuriz : he has a history of omissions in the case of Karadima and has a strong influence over the Pope as a member of the Council of Cardinals (C9). 2) Nuncio Ivo Scapolo : Scapolo: he was appointed nuncio to Chile by pope Benedict XVI in 2011. He has a close relationship with Angelo Sodano and is considered his delegate in Chile (Sodano was nuncio to Chile during Pinochet’s regime and his presence was decisive in delineating the conservative profile of the current episcopate). Scapolo worked in the Section of Relations with State when Sodano was Secretay of State. Like Sodano, Scapolo cultivated good relations with the Opus Dei (specially with the Bishop Ignacio González), the Legionaries of Christ and other conservative groups. Sodano was a friend of Karadima (Bishop Barros’ godfather) and, like him, Scapolo promoted the designation of Barros before the Pope despite the rejection of laypeople, according to different sources. Scapolo was one of the few bishops who attended the installation mass of Barros in Osorno and publicly expressed his support. Days before the papal visit to Chile, the AP published a leaked a letter sent by the pope in 2015 to the bishops’ conference regarding the case of Barros. The letter revealed the bishops were concerned about the Barros issue, and that Francis instructed Scapolo to contain the damage and move him away to avoid scandal before his appointment in Osorno. The plan was to ask Barros to take a sabbatical, but Scapolo boycotted the strategy. The letter not only indicates that the Pope was well aware of the problem before appointing Barros, but also that Scapolo’s manoeuver impeded a solution. 3) Germán Arana: a Spanish Jesuit, specialist in spiritual exercises for priests, and an old friend of Bergoglio. Barros participated in a religious retreat in Spain guided by Arana in Jan. 2015, the same time the Pope decided to send the bishop to Osorno. According to some versions, after the retreat, Arana met Bergoglio and gave good references of Barros. Before his return to Chile, Barros met the Pope for an hour. In Mar. 2015, Arana attended the installation of Barros in Osorno.
Bishop Juan Barros. In 2015, Pope Francis appointed Barros to head the small diocese of Osorno in south-central Chile. When the appointment was announced, hundreds of priests and lay Catholics from Osorno strongly rejected Barros based on the accusations of covering up for Karadima. They organized a demonstration on his inauguration day in Osorno and, since then, they have raised the case in every instance. In 2015, Bergoglio talked about the case for the first time in an informal statement he made in Rome: “[Osorno] is a church that lost its freedom allowing itself to fill their heads by politicians […]. So use your head and don’t get carried away by all the leftists who are the ones who organized all this. […] Osorno suffers, yes, but because it’s stupid.” • When he was still a seminarian, Barros was the personal assistant of Cardinal Francisco Fresno. According to the victims, the Bishop was part of Karadima’s inner circle and he witnessed sexual abuse on many occasions. In those years, witnesses claim that Nuncio Angelo Sodano used to visit Karadima to exchange information on the Church. In 1995, Barros was ordained bishop by Cardinal Jorge Medina. As in many other appointments, Sodano intervened in favor of the promotion of both Medina (in 1984) and Barros (1995). (Juan Andrés Guzmán, Gustavo Villarrubia, and Mónica González, Los secretos del imperio Karadima, Santiago de Chile, Catalonia/UDP, 2011; M. Olivia Monckeberg, Karadima: el señor de los infiernos, Santiago de Chile, Debate, 2011)
The Pope’s leaked letter. Days before the beginning of the visit to Chile, the Associated Press published a leaked letter that the Pope sent to the executive committee of the Chilean Bishops’ Conference regarding the case of Bishop Barros and the Vatican’s maneuvering to deal with him and two other prelates accused of knowing of Karadima’s abuses for decades. The letter reveals the Chilean bishop’s concern about Barros and that Francis instructed the nuncio Ivo Scapolo to contain the damage and move him away to avoid scandal well before the appointment in Osorno. The letter is dated Jan. 31, 2015, days after Barros’ appointment in Osorno. Bergoglio wrote: “I received your email of Jan. 23. Many thanks for openly expressing your concern at this time regarding the appointment of Mons. Juan Barros Madrid. I understand what you are saying and I am aware that the Church in Chile is in a difficult situation due to all the trials it has had to undergo.” “I well remember your visit in February of last year and all the different proposals, which I thought were prudent and constructive.” “However, a serious problem came up at the end of the year. The nuncio asked Mons. Barros to resign [from the military bishopric] and encouraged him to take a sabbatical, (for perhaps a year), before assuming any other responsibilities as a Bishop. And he told him the same course of action would be taken with Bishops of Talca [Horacio Valenzuela] and Linares [Tomislav Koljatic], but that nothing should be said to them. Mons. Barros wrote a resignation letter in which he mentioned the Nuncio’s comment.” “As you can comprehend, the Nuncio’s comment complicated and blocked any eventual path to offering a year’s sabbatical. We spoke about it with Cardinal Ouellet and I know he talked about it with the Nuncio.” (Source)  • As a result, not only Barros didn’t resign from the military ordinariate, but also he was appointed bishop of Osorno months later. Why did the Pope go through with the appointment despite being aware of the accusations and even the Chilean bishops asking him to intervene? Is Francis accusing the nuncio Scapolo of boycotting his decision? Did Scapolo – close to Sodano, who in turn was close to Karadima and supported the promotion of his priests – do it with the intention of protecting Barros from the Pope’s decision? And finally: who leaked the letter? The Chilean Bishops’ Conference? • Bergoglio talked about the letter during the press conference on the return flight from Peru: “It’s also a letter in favor of [that proves] the caution we had to manage Barros’ problem. […] When the Karadima scandal broke out […] you began to see how many priests who had been trained by Karadima had been abused or have been abusers. There are four bishops in Chile sent to the seminary by Karadima [Barros, Valenzuela, Koljatic, and Andrés Arteaga, who is very sick and on leave]. Someone from the Bishops’ Conference had suggested that these bishops […] might better renounce, resign or take a year sabbatical and then, after the storm ends, to avoid accusations… because they’re good bishops, good bishops. Like Barros. […] It was said: ‘We ask him to resign, perhaps explaining…’, and he generously resigned. He came to Rome and I said: ‘No. We don’t play like this because this means admitting prior guilt. In any case, if there is guilt, it has to be investigated.’ And I rejected his resignation. Later, when he was appointed [in Osorno], all this protest movement arose, and he gave me his resignation for the second time. I said: ‘No, you go.’ ” (source)Francis’ explanation is contradictory with what he wrote in the letter. He confirmed that Barros resigned, but he said he rejected the resignation because he had no evidence of guilt, not because his plan failed. And he doesn’t mention the role of the nuncio.
The nuncio Ivo Scapolo and Angelo Sodano : The spokesman of the lay community of Osorno, Juan Carlos Claret, stated that “the letter confirms what we have been denouncing for three years: the nuncio Ivo Scapolo is servile to the interests of Fernando Karadima, he is very close to Angelo Sodano, who is also a friend of Karadima, and everyone knows the influence that Sodano has in the Vatican. I believe that there is a game of thrones that is important to reveal”. (Source). Many sources state that Scapolo promoted the designation of Barros before the Pope, and against the opinion of cardinal Ricardo Ezzati and other members of the Bishops’ Conference (something that the leaked letter and the Pope’s conference have revealed) (source 1 ; source 2) • Scapolo was appointed Nuncio to Chile in 2011 by Benedict XVI. Before that, he had been nuncio to Bolivia and Rwanda. Previously, he had worked in the representations to Angola, Portugal and the US, and the Section for Relations with States when Sodano was Secretary of State. The nuncio’s close relationship with Sodano is well-known in Chile as well as his support of the conservative wing of the Chilean Church. In 2014, he accused three “disobedient” priests (José Aldunate, Mariano Puga and Felipe Berríos) before the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. Scapolo, like Sodano when he was nuncio in Chile, has also cultivated good relationships with the Opus Dei (one of his allies is the Opus Dei bishop of San Bernardo Ignacio González) and the Legionaries of Christ. (Source 1 ; Source 2). When Barros assumed his position in Osorno, Scapolo was one of the few bishops who attended the mass (Cardinal Ezzati did not) and expressed his support to him. (source). During the papal visit, the president of the Chamber of Deputies, Fidel Espinoza, handed a letter from the lay community of Osorno to Pietro Parolin. Espinoza said “Parolin thought that the group was a minority, we believe that the information that the Pope received is absolutely false.” “Of course, I blame the nuncio Ivo Scapolo. They misinform the Vatican saying it’s an isolated movement. We want the ecclesiastical authority to inform the Vatican with the truth.”
Father Germán Arana, Bergoglio’s friend : While many people point to Scapolo, others believe that the Spanish Jesuit priest Germán Arana played a key role in making the pope radically change his mind and deciding to keep Barros and appoint him in Osorno. Germán Arana is a specialist in spiritual exercises for priests and an old friend of Bergoglio. He is considered very conservative and anticommunist, and an informant of the Pope in Spain with a strong influence on the local church. Barros participated in a religious retreat in Spain guided by Arana in Jan. 2015, the same time when the Pope decided to send the bishop to Osorno. According to some versions, after the retreat, Arana met Bergoglio and gave good references of Barros. Before his return to Chile, Barros met the pope for an hour. In March 2015, Arana attended the installation of Barros in Osorno. (source 1 ; source 2).
– Pope Francis accepted Barros’s resignation in June 2018.
Peru Visit (2018) : A week before his trip, Francis ordered the Vatican takeover of the Sodalitium Chririanae Vitae and appointed an administrator. The Sodalitium is a powerful and elite organization founded in Peru in 1971 by the layman Luis Fernando Figari. It was recognized by Rome in 1997 as a Society of Apostolic Life of Pontifical Right under the authority of the Congregation for Institutes of Consacrated Life. Apart from Peru, the Sodalitium has presence in Argentina, where it was invited in 2005 by the then-Cardinal Jorge Bergoglio; Brazil; Colombia, invited by Cardinal Alfonso López Trujillo in 1990 (it owns two schools in this country); Chile, invited by Cardinal Francisco Javier Errázuriz in 1999 (it owns a university and a school in Santiago, and counts important businessmen among its members); Costa Rica; Ecuador; the US; and Italy. (source) • Figari headed the Sodalitium until 2010 and has been accused of several cases of pedophilia. An internal report of the organization concluded that Figari and three other high-ranking members abused 19 minors and 10 adults for about three decades. Prosecutors in Peru say that Figari orchestrated the sexual and physical abuse of young men. In 2014, when Peruvian prosecutors began the criminal investigation, Figari left for Rome, where he currently lives. The former director of the Sodalitium is scheduled to go on trial in 2018. A Peruvian judge is now set to rule on whether to authorize his arrest, which would allow prosecutors to seek his extradition from the Vatican.
– In 2017, after conducting its own investigation, the Vatican told Figari not to return to Peru, according to a letter sent to the Sodalitium by Cardinal Jõao Braz, prefect of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life (source). The spokesman Greg Burke said in a statement “the directive not to return to Peru was issued in order to block any contact of Figari with Sodalitium. The Vatican will in no way oppose Peruvian efforts to detain Figari.” (source) • The case also shadowed Francis’ visit to Peru, and there, another bishop was accused of covering up Figari’s abuse. The Archbishop of Piura, José Antonio Eguren, is an incardinated priest of the Sodalitium, one of the closest disciples of Figari and a member of the group’s leadership. Eguren gave the honor speech to Bergoglio in Trujillo, where the Pope celebrated a mass. The archbishop has been also accused of land trafficking in the city of Piura and has been implicated as a member of La Gran Cruz, a criminal organization involved in homicide, money laundering, hired killers, and extortion. (source) • In the press conference during the return flight, Bergoglio explained the issue: “The Sodalitium began with the case of a person who seemed to be very… very virtuous, who died. In an investigation it was discovered that this person had a double life. This is the first case of the Sodalitium I know. Hey! But this was 20 or 25 years ago, and then there was a complaint of abuse committed by the founder, not only sexual, but also of consciousness manipulation. The trial against the founder arrived to the Holy See. He was convicted. He was not expelled from the Sodalitium but he lives alone with a person who assists him… He pleads innocent of the evidence that was presented in trial and appealed to the Apostolic Signatura, the Vatican’s supreme court. The case is in appeal. […] The trial was a trigger for other of his victims to present civil and ecclesiastical cases. So, if the Apostolic Signatura finishes the trial first – for or against him – it does not make sense because there are several more serious cases and the justice has to pronounce judgment on them and the civil justice intervened […] Almost two years ago I sent a Visitor to the Sodalitium, Cardinal Tobin, bishop of Newark. Cardinal Tobin […] discovered things that he did not understand or were unclear, appointed two economic observers and found the third type of abuse that also touched the founder: the economic management. After a study, he recommended ‘commissioning’ the Sodalitium.” (source).
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 9, « Sacré Collège» ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 9, « The Sacred College ».

China

– See Benoît Vermander, University Fudan, Shanghaï at the Sciences Po Symposium, 2018 : here, the record of his conference, co-organized by F. Martel.
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 24, « Les diplomates du pape » ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 14 « The pope’s diplomats ».

Clairvaux (Bernard of)

– On the love affair between Bernard of Clairvaux and Malachy, see : Kittredge Cherry, “Bernard of Clairvaux and Malachy : Abbot and the archbishop he loved”, qspirit.net, August 20, 2017. See also the letters between them.
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 1, « Domus Sanctae Marthae» ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 1 « Domus Sanctae Marthae ».

Claudel (Paul)

– French writer.
◊ See : Joseph Ratzinger ; Arthur Rimbaud
– On Paul Claudel, I mainly use Marie-Anne Lescourret, Claudel, Flammarion, 2003.
– On Joseph Ratzinger, reader of Claudel, see (among multiple sources) his speech in 1998 for his reception of the Legion d’honneur decoration : La Croix 1 ; La Croix 2.
– On the essential debate about Claudel and Rimbaud and Rimbaud’s catholicism see : Claudel’s preface of Une Saison en enfer, 1912. See also : Jean-Baptiste Baronian, ed., Dictionnaire Rimbaud, coll. Bouquins, Robert Laffont, 2014 (see section: « Claudel », pp. 158-161) ; Enid Starkie, Rimbaud, Flammarion, 1982 (on Claudel, see pp. 278-279 ; 497) ; Benjamin Fondane, Rimbaud le voyou, Non Lieu, 2010 ; Pierre Petitfils, Rimbaud, Julliard, 1982 (see p. 386). See also : « Rimbaud catholique », in Isabelle Rimbaud, Reliques, Mercure de France, 1921 (sister of the poet ; see the text : « Rimbaud catholique »).
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 7, « Le code Maritain» ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 7 « The Maritain Code ».

Cocteau (Jean)

– French writer.
– See : Le Livre Blanc, 1928. The book was first published anonymously by Maurice Sachs.
– See Angelo Rinaldi : “Cocteau, Les pièges de la facilité pour notre sublime tante nationale”, L’Express, 30 septembre 1983.
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 7, « Le code Maritain» ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 7 « The Maritain Code ».

Colombia

◊ On Cardinal Alfonso López Trujillo see the entry at : López
Germán Robledo Ángel. Former priest in Cali. Published Hacia un clero gay (Towards a gay clergy), where he denounces the hypocrisy of the Catholic Church in Colombia, for its condemnation of gay rights, but its homosexual –and sometimes abusive– practices. He tells of his indignation when learning that some of the local donations for the Church in Cali where used by priests to pay for male prostitutes. 
– William de Jesús Mazo Pérez. Accused and condemned for child abuse. 
– Juan Vicente Córdoba.
Jesuit bishop of Fontibón. Has spoken in favour of respecting the dignity of homosexuals, but he opposed legislation to grant them the rights of marriage and adoption. 
– Secretos bajo la sotana.
Colombian emission by Caracol about hidden homosexuality in the Vatican
– José Elías Lopera. Colombian priest. Accused by his former lover, whom he abandoned after he was badly burnt, of having a gay relationship with him.
– New Revelations about sexual abuse in Medellìn (here).
– On the processus of peace with the FARC and the role of the Catholic Church, see : Jon Lee Anderson, “How Colombia’s Voters Rejected Peace”, The New Yorker, October 4, 2016 ; Nicholas Casey, “Colombian Opposition to Peace Deal Feeds Off Gay Rights Backlash”, New York Times, Oct 8, 2016 ; Deborah Sontag, “The Secret History of Colombia’s Paramilitaries and the U.S War on Drugs”, New York Times, Sept. 10, 2016.
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 13, « La Croisade contre les gays» ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 13 « The Crusade against gays ».

Communion and Liberation

◊ See CEI, Cardinal Ruini
– Movement founded in 1954. See : Gabriel Abraham Almond, R Scott Appleby, Emmanuel Sivan, Strong Religion, University of Chicago Press, 2003 ; Dario Zadra, Comunione e Liberazione: A Fundamentalist Idea Of Power, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1994. See also : La Croix
{further readingThis subject is developed in Sodoma by Frédéric Martel, in chapter(s) : 18, « La CEI» ; In the Closet of the Vatican, in chapter(s) 17 « CEI ».

Concile Vatican II (Vatican II Council)

◊ See Vatican II

Congar (Yves)

– Theologian, French Cardinal.
– On his relation with Jacques Maritain and on his own friendships, see Jean Puyo, Jean Puyo interroge le père Congar, Le Centurion, 1975 (pp. 18-20 et 24-27).
{further readingThis subject is used as a background information for Sodoma by Frédéric Martel.


Congregation of the Doctrine of the Faith (ex Inquisition)

– See Guy Bedouelle, “L’Inquisition, légendes et châtiments”, in Dans les Secrets du Vatican, De Pierre à François, L’incroyable histoire des papes, L’Express, Thema, Jan 2016 ; and Corrado Augias, “Le Tribunal de la Foi”, in Dans les Secrets du Vatican, De Pierre à François, L’incroyable histoire des papes, L’Express, Thema, Jan 2016.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Croatia

 The question of homosexuality in the Catholic Church has been discussed by several scholars and journalists, among them : Mirna Jasic ; Kornelija Ivanic ; Predrag Lucic ; Vlatka Polšak Palatinuš ; Ivica Kruhoberec ; Marinko Culic. See also the associations Protagora and Centre pour le courage civique.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Crusades (The)

– On the homosexuality of Richard the Lionheart, see see John Boswell, Christianity, Social Tolerance and Homosexuality, University of Chicago Press, 1980, p. 231. See also (quoted by Boswell) : James Brundage, Richard Lion Heart, 1974 ; Brundage is frank about the homosexuality of Richard the Lionheart.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Cuba and cardinal Jaime Ortega

On Cuba in general : I have used the biography of Che Guevara by Jon Lee Anderson, a very useful book on the history of the revolution : Jon Lee Anderson, Che, Bantam, 1997 ; Enrique Krauze, Redeemers, Ideas and power in Latin America, Harper Collins, 2011 ; Fidel Castro, My Life, Scribner, 2006 (official “spoken” autobiography with Ignacio Ramonet) ; Juan Reinaldo Sánchez, La Vie cachée de Fidel Castro, Michel Lafon, 2014 (the book has a lot of inside informations of the spying system by the Castros) ; Marie Laure Geoffray, “Etudier la contestation en context autoritaire : Le cas cubain”, Politix, n°93, 1-2011 ; I also follow the blog and articles by Yoani Sánchez
Background on Castro’s regime and Che Guevara : Pierre Kalfon, Che, Ernesto Guevara, une légende du siècle, Seuil, 1997 ; Jorge G. Castañeda, Compañero, The Life and Death of Che Guevara, Vintage, New York, 1997. On Castro and homosexuality, see

his interview for the Mexican newspaper La Jornada, 31 août 2010 (« S’il y a quelqu’un de responsable, c’est moi », said Castro regarding punishment of homosexuals). On Mariela Castro, see « A Castro Strives to Open Cuban’s Opinions on Sex », New York Times, 9 juin 2007 and her interview for Spiegel, July 21, 2010 ; on Human Rights situation in Cuba, see : Human Rights Watch, « Un nouveau Castro, le même Cuba », Nov 2009 and the reports by Amnesty International (La situation des droits humains dans le monde, rapport 2010).
On the Catholic Church in Cuba : Fidel Castro and Frei Betto, Fidel & Religion, Conversations with Frei Betto on Marxism & Liberation Theology, Ocean Press, 2006 ; Philippe Létrilliart, Cuba, l’Eglise et la revolution, L’Harmattan, 2005. Jon Lee Anderson, “Pope Francis in Cuba”, The New Yorker, Sept 22, 2015. See the criticisms against Cardinal Ortega by dissident Orlando Pardo. See also : Jaime Ortega y Alamino, Dialogo a Cuba, San Paolo Edizioni, 2017 (in Italian, with the official letters by the Pope, pres. Obama, etc). Several priests were among the compañeros of Fidel Casto in the Sierra Maestra, see here.
On Félix Varela, the Varela canonization process and the Projet Varela : see Fidel Castro, My Life, Scribner, 2006 (see pp. 419-422)
On Fidel and liberation theology : Fidel Castro and Frei Betto, Fidel & Religion, Conversations with Frei Betto on Marxism & Liberation Theology, Ocean Press, 2006 (see pp. 233-239 : Fidel confirms that he read the books by Boff and Guttiérrez). See also : Jaime Ortega y Alamino, Dialogo a Cuba, San Paolo Edizioni, 2017 (in Italian, with the official letters by the Pope, pres. Obama, etc.).
On the UMAP camps : Enrique Ros, La UMAP : El Gulag Castrista, Ediciones Universal, Etats-Unis, 2004 (in Spanish) ; see also Fidel Castro, My Life, Scribner, 2006 (see pp. 222-226)
On gay life in Cuba : see my book, F. Martel, Global Gay, chap. II, Stock, 2013 ; see also : Emilio Bejel, Gay Cuban Nation, The University of Chicago Press, 2001.
On Prostitution in Cuba : see the analysis of the well-known blogger and dissident Yoani Sánchez, “Cortesanas de la utopía”, El País, March, 12, 2017 (prostitution is forbidden but generalized in Cuba, within the apparatchick and tourists – also among the clergy).
On Jaime Ortega : Jaime Ortega y Alamino, Dialogo a Cuba, San Paolo Edizioni, 2017 (in Italian) ; See also here. Cardinal Ortega spoke publicly against homosexuality in Cuba, writing against legislation that allowed sex reassignment and marriage for same-sex couples. 
On the operation “Peter Pan” to exile people, run in part by the Catholic Church, see : Jon Lee Anderson, « The Cuba Play », The New Yorker, Oct 3, 2016 :
On the role of Cardinal Ortega in the Obama-Castro process of pacification, see Jon Lee Anderson, « The Cuba Play », The New Yorker, Oct 3, 2016 :
On Alejandro Castro Espín, son of president Raúl Castro, and head of Cuban counterintelligence services see : Jon Lee Anderson, « The Cuba Play », The New Yorker, Oct 3, 2016 : ; on a more general overview of the security apparatus of Cuba, see Brian Latell, After Fidel, The Inside Story of Castro’s Regime and Cuba’s Next Leader, St Martin’s Press, 2005.
See also the TV program « El programa de Maria Elvira » (that has been reposted and diffused on many blogs). On this video, the anchorwoman Maria Elvira speaks with the Cuban ex-colonel Roberto Ortega, nicknamed « agente Idilio ». He is a former head of the medical team of FAR (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias). He gives a hypothesis in the program about the reason why Castro has always been moderate on Castroism: the archbishop might be homosexual and he would live with an agent of the Cuban secret services, « a robust six-foot-tall  black man » [1m82]. The ex-colonel suggests Ortega has been blackmailed by the regime because of his possible homosexuality. According to Roberto Ortega, the deputy head of counter intelligence (FAR), an agent from the secret police « was the husband of cardinal Jaime Ortega ». Sources : blog of the Spanish writer Zoé Valdés ; NeoClubPress blog ; and also here. A Dominican newspaper also revealed this interview with the title « The Cardinal and his husband » (here). The video is also accessible here : Video Link. See also the blog : baracuteycubano.blogspot.com and the site democraciayvida.org ; many of these websites are anti-Castroist.
– On Bertone and Cuba : Tarcisio Bertone says he went “to Cuba five times” in an interview with Andrea Purgatori for the Huffington Post in Italy : Andrea Purgatori, “Meet Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, Pope Francis’s Former Secretary of State”, The Huffington Post, Feb. 18, 2015 :
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : 24, « L’Abdication » / 23 « The Abdication».


— D —



Daniélou (Jean)

– French theologian.
– See Jean Daniélou, Carnets spirituels and Le Chemin du labyrinth (in both books Jean discussed the homosexuality of his brother Alain).
– I mainly use the biography by Paul Lebeau, Fleurus, 1967. See also the biography in Italian by Gianluigi Pasquale, Jean Daniélou, Morcelliana, 2011.
– On Alain Daniélou, the brother of Jean Daniélou, specialist of India and homosexual (he lived with his lover, Swiss photographer Raymond Burnier), see the book : Emmanuelle de Boysson, Le cardinal et l’hindouiste : le mystère des frères Daniélou, Albin Michel, 1999 (grand-niece of Daniélou, de Boysson confirms the organizations of multiple masses for homosexuals by Daniélou). On this book, see also : Daniel Bermond, « Le Cardinal et l’hindouiste », Lire, novembre 1999.
– On Louis Massignon, a converted Catholic intellectual, specialized in Islamic culture, who met Lawrence of Arabia and Gandhi, and with whom Daniélou celebrated masses for homosexuals during several years, see Christian Destremau & Jean Moncelon, Massignon, Plon, 1994. See : Louis Massignon, Les Trois prières d’Abraham, Cerf, 1997 (read especially the one on Sodom). See also here.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : 8, « L’Amour d’amitié»/ « Loving Friendship »

Danneels (Godfried)

Cardinal from Belgium
– See also : Saint Gall Group or St. Gallen Group.
– Godfried Danneels, Confidences d’un cardinal, Racine, 2009 (interviewed by Christain Laporte).
– About the St. Gallen group, see : Tom Kington, “Conservative opposition to Pope Francis spurs talk of a schism in the Catholic Church”, Los Angeles Times, April 17, 2017 ; see also on the same St. Gallen group, the critical article by Anne Dolhein, “Cardinal Danneels de la Mafia, groupe secret de Saint-Gall”, Reinformation. For a critical view, see : Marcantonio Colonna, The Dictator Pope, The inside story of the Francis Papacy, Regnery Publishing ; Revised, Updated edition (April 23, 2018) : see chap. 1, “The St. Gallen Mafia”, pp. 1-20 (the book is a critic of Pope Francis). See also “The St Gallen Group Confirmed”, LifeSite, Sept 29, 2015.
– On sexual abuse, see : Marie-Cécile Royen, “Abus sexuels : l’enlisement d’un cardinal belge”, L’Express, Feb 9, 2010. See also L’Express.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « La CEI » (french version) / « CEI » (english version).

Dante

– Italian writer.
– On Dante’s Divine Comedy, four mentions of homosexuality are in Inferno 11, 15, 16 and in Purgatorio (about Julius Cesar). See the Divine Comedy’s edition by Francesco Gnerre, Petrini, 2015.
– On Dante’s system, I read the analysis by French historian Jacques Le Goff, La naissance du Purgatoire, Gallimard, 1981 (see chapter 10 : “Le triomphe poétique, La Divina Commedia”, pp. 449-493). See also, by Robert Pogue Harrison, “Dante on Trial”, New York Review of Books, Feb 2015 ; and Robert Pogue Harrison, “Dante : He Went Mad in His Hell”, New York Review of Books, Oct 27, 2016.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

David and Jonathan

◊ See Homosexuality in the Bible.
– For the mentions of homosexuality in the Bible, the story of David and Jonathan, and its interpretation, see: Thomas Römer and Loyse Bonjour, L’homosexualité dans le Proche-Orient ancien et la Bible, Labor and Fides, Genève, 2016 (for David and Jonathan’s love, see chapter III, pp. 65-84).
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Dead Sea (The)

– Israel and Jordanian sides altogether.
◊ See also: Sodom ; Loth ; and Orient Travels.
Archeological expeditions : for the historians and travellers who visited the Dead Sea early on, sometimes to try to discover Sodom, see Volney (Contantin-François Chassebeuf, dit), Voyage en Syrie et en Eggypte, 1787, reed. Gaulmier/Mouton, 1959 ; Travels through Syria and Egypt in the Years 1783, 1784 and 1785, Burnet, White and co, 1788. See also : J. L. Burckhardt, Travels in Syria and the Holy Land, John Murray, 1822.
Wildlife : See for the Israeli side : Azaria Alon, Israel, National Parks & Nature Reserves, A Carta Guide, 2008 and the collection Birds of Israel and Mammals of Israel, Pocket guides, 2005. See for the Jordanian side : Jarir Maani, Field Guide to Jordan, Maani Publisher, 2010.
Biblical Wildlife : I used David Darom & Yossi Eshbol, Animals of the Bible, “From the Lion to the Snail”, Palphot publisher.
Flora : and the collection Trees & Shrubs of Israel and Wildflowers of Israel, Pocket guides, 2005.
Sinkholes : Eetta Prince-Gibson, The Dead Sea is dying, Slate, Sept 17, 2013 (an excellent article on the sinkhole phenomenon and the current situation of the Dead Sea)
The Red Sea-Dead Sea Canal Project : See the website of the Ministry of Water and Irrigation of the Jordan Valley Authority, The Hashemite Kingdon of Jordan.
Water level and explanations of the Dead Sea shrinking : here.
{further readingThis subject is developed in an non-published chapter of the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican see it online on http://www.sodoma.fr

De Foucauld (Charles)

– Died in 1916.
– Beatification in 2005 by Benedict XVI.
– His beatification has been deferred several times due to suspicion of homosexuality. His homosexuality is now well attested.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

DIGOS

◊ Voir: Police

Di Falco (Jean-Marie)

– Bishop, Former spokesman of the French Episcopate.
– The spokesman of the French Episcopate has been a bishop since 1997 (ordained by Mgr Lustiger). He was a well-known figure between 1987 and 1996 as a spokesman for the French Episcopate Conference. He remained president of the Communication Council for the French Episcopate until 2010. His positions were mainly liberal even though he was orthodox on moral and sexual issues. He spoke fiercely against same-sex civil unions.
– In 2002 and again in 2016, the bishop Jean-Marie di Falco, former spokesman of the French Episcopat, was denounced for sexual abuse by two men who were underage at the time of the supposed events. The facts are several decades old (1972-1976). The case has been considered by French justice but closed without further action because of prescriptions and for lack of proofs. Di Falco denied any wrong doing. Pope Francis accepted his resignation as Bishop of Gap in April 2017 because he was 75 years old. Sources : France Inter 1 ; France Inter 2 ; Marianne ; and also.
• On this scandal, see : Guillaume Serina, L’affaire di Falco, Paris, Ramsay, 2003. See also : “Mgr Di Falco accusé d’abus sexuels : le plaignant lui réclame 600 000 euros », Le Dauphiné, Jan 22, 2018. (See also about “prescription” here).
• More recently, Olivier-Jourdan Roulot described the financial scandals of Mgr Di Falco in “Monseigneur Jean-Michel di Falco, l’évêque qui a dilapidé des millions d’euros”, Journal du Dimanche, Sept 23, 2018.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) 17 : « La fille ainée de l’Eglise » (french version).

Dignitatis Humanae Institute

◊ See: US ; Steve Bannon ; Cardinal Burke ; Mgr Viganò
– Bannon and the Dignitatis Humanae Institute, see : Le Monde, October 2018 ; Dignitatis Humanae Institute : “This is How Steve Bannon Sees The Entire World”, Nov 16, 2016 (source).
– On the attribution of the monastery to DHI, see : Alberto Custodero, La Repubblica, June 16, 2017.
– On Trump and the Digtnitatis Humanae Institute, see : Jason Horowitz, « Steve Bannon Carries Battles to Another Influential Hub : The Vatican », New York Times, Feb. 7, 2017. See also : Samuel Freedman, « “Church Militant Theology” Is Put To New, and Politicized, Use », New York Times, Dec 30, 2006 ; and an interesting point of view by Christopher Caldwell. For Steve Bannon’s speech at a symposium at the Vatican, via Skype, see the transcription here.
– Official reaction by the Dignitatis Humanae Institute (Cardinal Burke and Benjamin Harnwell) on the accusation of Cardinal Martino’s homosexuality by Mgr Viganò (here).
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Domus Sanctae Marthae».

Dissidents

◊ For the other key « dissidents », see an entry at their name.
– Udo Rauchfleisch (Switzerland). Doctor, phycologist, expert in homosexuality. Has investigated the social and psychological experiences of homosexual individuals. Interesting books: Homosexuelle Männer in Kirche und Gesellschaft.
– Joseph Zen (China) : see Le Monde.
– John J. Mc Neill : see Margalit Fox, “John McNeill, Priest Who Pushed Catholic Church to Welcome Gays, Dies at 90”, New York Times, Sept 25, 2015.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Dissidents ».

Dolan (Timothy)

– US cardinal
– Sexual abuse cover-up : Cardinal Timothy Dolan has been mentionned on the “dirty dozen” list edited by the Survivors’ Network of those Abused by Priests (SNAP) (source here).
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « La Théorie du genre» (french version) / « Gender Theory » (english version).

Dominican Order (The Order of Preachers)

– On homosexuality in the Order, see : François Boespflug, Pourquoi j’ai quitté l’ordre. Et comment il m’a quitté, Ed. J. C. Béhar, 2016 (see the pages on homosexuality in the Dominican order).
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Douthat (Ross)

– Journalist
– A New York Times’ columnist. He wrote : To Change the Church: Pope Francis and the Future of Catholicism, Simon and Schuster, 2018.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Drewermann (Eugen)

– German theologian.
– Born in 1940, Eugen Drewermann is a theologian and a former Roman Catholic priest (his licence to preach was revoked in 1992 by Cardinal Ratzinger).
– He wrote dozens of seminal books, among them I recommend Fonctionnaires de Dieu, in german: 1989 ; trans. in French: Albin Michel, 1993 (I use this book several times in my own research, especially the paperback edition La Bibliothèque Spirituelle/Albin Michel, 1995 ; see his pages on clergy attire, masturbation, friendship in the Church, his discussion on Julien Green, Jacques Maritain or André Gide’s books for example, and his famous chapters on homosexuality: “L’échappatoire homosexuelle”, pp. 491-529).
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

« Dubia » (The)

– Four cardinals criticizing Pope Francis.
– The four dubias are : Cardinal Raymond Burke ; Cardinal Walter Brandmüller ; Cardinal Joachim Meisner; Cardinal Carlo Caffara.
– The most comprehensive answer to the Dubia’s letter, is Rocco Buttiglione, Risposte amichevoli ai critici di Amoris Laeticia, 2017. See also, Jean-Michel Garrigues and Alain Thomasset, Une morale souple mais non sans boussole : répondre aux doutes des quatre cardinaux sur Amoris Laetitia, with a preface by Cardinal Schönborn, Cerf, 2017.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Le Synode » (french version) / « The Synode » (english version).

Dziwisz (Stanislaw)

– Pope John Paul II’s assistant ; Polish cardinal.
◊ See : John Paul II ; Angelo Sodano ; Marcial Maciel.
– Stanislaw Dziwisz, J’ai vécu avec un Saint, Cerf, 2014 (based on personal memos and notes – John Paul II asked Dziwisz to destroy them all but his assistant decided not to–, this bo ok is a favorable view on the life of the Pope John-Paul II by his long-time assistant).
– On John Paul II’s blood, the only relics of Karol Wojtyla that exist. Newspaper’s Dagospia asks: “How did Dziwisz manage to get the blood? The Pope asked to destroy all the relics of him, why didn’t Dziwisz respect his last wish? That relic has been donated by Dziwisz to the Church of San Nicolò in Spoleto, in Umbria. It appears that the blood was taken in 1981, after the attempted murder of Wojtyla. The nurse Anna Stanghellini, who worked at the Policlinico Gemelli, kept the bloodied shirt of the Pope and in 2000 she gave it to the Casa Provinciale delle Suore della Carità di San Vincenzo de’ Paoli. (Source 1 ; Source 2 ; Source 3).
– On the insulting qualifier “Wdowa Dziwisz” (Dziwisz Widow, supposely of John-Paul II), there are hundreds of comments with this word on the Internet.
– On the links between Dziwisz and Marcial Maciel, see : John Thavis, “The Vatican diaries” who discusses the Dziwisz’s contacts with the Legionaries of Christ and Marcial Maciel. In respect to the financial support of Solidarnosc by the Legionaries, see this article by Gazeta Wyborcza (in Polish) : the author writes: “In all probability Maciel supports Solidarnosc in Poland. That was the reason for the friendship with John Paul II. Each time his sins have been neutralized. Over and over as the new documents reached the Vatican, the old ones had already been forgotten.” In this article he writes that he made use of the following books: « La Iglesia del silencio. De mártires y pederastas », « Marcial Maciel. La historia de un criminal » and « La voluntad de no saber ». (See above : Marcial Maciel.) See also : Vatican help for communist Poland (Pomoc Watykanu dla komunistycznej Polski) : About how John Paul II was to send 150 million dollars for the needs of the Church and Solidarity in Poland from 1981-1989 (source). President Lech Walesa says that Solidarity received money from the Vatican (source).
• Jason Berry, “Tha Shame of John Paul II : How the Sex Abuse Scandal Stained His Papacy”, The Nation, April 27, 201 (Berry suggests that Dziwisz received some money from Marcial Maciel’s Legionaries of Christ). By Jason Berry, see also : “Francis Must Fix-Up Cover-Up culture that John-Paul II enabled”, NCROnline.org, Feb 21, 2019.
• Edward Pentin, “The Allegations Against Cardinal Sodano”, Catholic World Report, May 4, 2011.
• See also : Miroslaw Wlekły, “Legion Molestowanych”, Gazeta Wyborcza : Here are some excerpts translated : “November 11, 2002. José Barba sends a letter to Stanisław Dziwisz, secretary of John Paul II on behalf of himself and other legionnaires. In 12 points written in Polish are the sins of Maciel.” […] “Flora Garza Barragán (daughter of Flory Barragán de Garzy, Legion’s long-time sponsor): – My mother told me that he asked her for millions of dollars. On a special radio with which John Paul II could secretly communicate with Lech Wałęsa. Mum gave two million dollars for it (…). When we came to Rome, we always had a party in honor of my mom (…). When her money ran out, he broke off contact with her.” […] Alberto Athié: At this time, John Paul II appoints Maciel as an expert of the World Synod of Bishops in the Vatican, and I try to continue. The house where we are sitting, I bought from the mother of Bishop Carlos Talavera. He was a model for me, a friend of my father and father when my father died. He supported me when I decided to quit my medical studies and become a priest. Wonderful man. Talavera promises me that he will give my letter to Joseph Ratzinger, then-prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. He returned from the Vatican and says: « Ratzinger read your letter with me and asked if I know you well, I assured him that you are reliable and all this is true. » And Ratzinger said, « I’m sorry, but we can not move this matter because Maciel is close to the Pope and very useful for the Church.  »
Cardinal Stanislaw Dziwisz and possible protection of sexual abuser : The weekly Wprost refers to the Italian La Stampa. The newspaper writes that John Paul II hid pedophilia scandals (source). The newspaper Gazeta Krakowska and the British Sunday Times mention the hiding of abusers by Pope John Paul II. The Pope was supposed to hide the Austrian cardinal pedophile Hans Hermann Groër (source). On the affair of Father Lukasz Kubas, information of Dziwisz sending the priest to pastoral work (source). On Father Andrzej : he was suspected of having pornographic films, which was of interest to Interpol. However, there was no strong evidence. The priest explained that his computer was used by other people – a parish priest and housekeeper. Cardinal Dziwisz, despite his suspicions, did not forbid the priest’s pastoral work (source).
Stanislaw Dziwisz and Benedict XVI : he was very critical about Ratzinger’s decision to step down, “You can’t come down from the Cross” (source).
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Sacré Collège » (french version) / « The Sacred College » (english version).

— E —

Errázuriz (Francisco Javier)

– Cardinal from Chile.
◊ See: Karadima, Fernando; Sexual abuse in the Chilean church.
– Born in Santiago (Chile) in 1933, Errázuriz is a member of the Institute of Schönstatt Fathers, a traditionalist German-born apostolic movement in which he was world Superior General. In 1990, Pope John Paul II appointed him Archbishop Secretary of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life. Back in Chile, he became Archbishop of Valparaíso (1996) and Santiago (1998), and subsequently elevated to cardinal. In 2010, he retired from the diocese of Santiago at the age of 77.
Pope Francis & Errázuriz : Pope Francis elected Errázuriz members of the Council of Cardinals (C9) for the reform of the Roman Curia. Errázuriz and Bergoglio have known each other since the 2000s. They were invested as cardinals by Pope John Paul II in the same ceremony in 2001, and acted simultaneously as archbishops of Santiago and Buenos Aires. Their relationship strengthened in the fifth Latin American Episcopal Conference (Celam) in Aparecida (Brazil). At that time, Errázuriz was president of the conference and Bergoglio chaired the committee charged with drafting the final document. The tandem of Bergoglio and Errazuriz succeeded in the final issue of the Aparecida document. Pope Francis fired Errázuriz from C9 in the fall 2018 ; in the meantime a Chilean prosecutor announced that he will require Errázuriz to state as accused for covering up abuses in an investigation against the priest Jorge Lapalagne (occurred 10 years ago). Cardinal Ezzati (bishop of Santiago) is in the same situation. (article here and here).
Cover-up accusation in the Karadima case. Errázuriz has been accused of mismanagement and concealment in the case of the Fernando Karadima, one of the most powerful priests of the Chilean church, sentenced by the Vatican for sexual abuse of minors. In 2004, the wife of one of the victims presented Errázuriz the first complaint against Karadima. The accusation was ignored until 2005, when Errázuriz opened a canonical trial after the Church received a second accusation. (Guzmán, Villarrubia and González, Los secretos del imperio Karadima, UDP, 2011) Despite receiving a third testimony, Errázuriz decided to suspend the trial for three years based on a supposed lack of evidence. In a civil lawsuit against the Chilean church, Errázuriz testified: “At that time, Father Karadima’s fame was extraordinary, he had a reputation as a saint, so I did not believe the denunciation.” The Cardinal finally reactivated the canonical trial in 2010 after two more victims brought the case to the criminal justice and a TV program revealed the story. In an interview for this book, Juan Pablo Hermosilla, defense attorney of Karadima’s victims and co-founder of the Fundación para la Confianza – an advocacy group against child abuse in Chile –, accused Errázuriz of “willful blindness” because he received many testimonies and decided not to act, “probably with the support of the Vatican” due to Karadima’s contacts in Rome. This, he said, could be proved in a criminal lawsuit despite the fact that it was dismissed because of the statute of limitations. Victims and main litigants against Karadima, Juan Carlos Cruz and James Hamilton, also accused Errázuriz of being “the main person responsible for concealment in the Chilean Church” (during our conversation for the book). Hamilton considers that Errázuriz and his successor, Cardinal Ricardo Ezzati, are “criminals.” The Chilean justice dismissed a lawsuit against the archbishopric of Santiago in 2017 because there was insufficient evidence of cover-up and Errázuriz could explain his delay in reporting, according to judge Juan Muñoz Prado. After the appeal, the process will probably end in the Supreme Court. • In 2015, a series of e-mails between Cardinals Errázuriz and Ezzati were leaked to the press. In one of them, Ezzati suggested Errázuriz vetoing the appointment of Juan Carlos Cruz to the Pontifical Commission for the Protection of Minors, created by the Council of Cardinals (where Errázuriz is a member) and Errázuriz used his influence in the Roman Curia to achieve it. In previous emails, they planned how to avoid Cruz’s participation in a meeting with the Anglophone bishops in Rome resorting to Cardinals Ouellet and Bertone. They wanted to prevent Cruz from “falsifying the truth.”• In court, Karadima stated that Errázuriz told him that “a book had been written and it said he was a pedophile so he had to pay 500 million pesos [one million dollars] to silence a lie.” No further inquiries were made on this allegation. See also on Cardinal Javier Errázuriz : Laurie Goodstein, “Now Gathering in Rome, a Conclave of Fallible Cardinals”, New York Times, Feb 26, 2013.
The Bishop Cox case. In 2002, the Archbishop Francisco José Cox resigned from the diocese of La Serena days before an investigation was published about inappropriate behavior toward seminarists and other youths, including minors. Before that, Cox was Secretary of the Pontifical Council for the Family (1981-85), but he was moved back to Chile to a minor diocese for unclear reasons. Cox was also a member of Schönstatt while Errázuriz was superior general of the movement. Errázuriz recalled that his subordinate “had a somewhat exuberant affection” towards “all kind of people, although it is more surprising in relation to children.” He also recognized: “Us, as his friends and superiors, became very hard to correct him and he kept silent and humbly asked for forgiveness. He told us that he was going to make serious efforts to find a different style of treatment, but unfortunately he could not manage to do it.” Although Errázuriz himself had previously verified Cox’s misconduct, he did not prevent the promotion of his friend nor present the case before the civil or ecclesial courts. Instead, as president of the Chilean bishops’ conference, once the case was publicly known, he stated: “It is not our intention to make judgments about what happened in the privacy of his consciousness.” Cox admitted to the allegations against him and was moved, first, to Colombia, where he took a position at the Celam, and later to a Schönstatt sanctuary in Germany, where he lives a life of prayer. He remains Archbishop Emeritus of La Serena.
The “Father Tato” case. Errázuriz has been also accused of serious omissions in the case of José Andrés Aguirre, “Father Tato”, the first Chilean priest to be convicted of sexually abusing children. A Chilean court sentenced Aguirre to 12 years in prison for molestation against nine girls and statutory rape against a tenth victim. However, Aguirre recognized that his criminal records began in 1984. In 1994, the Archdiocese of Santiago knew he had raped and impregnated a 13-year-old girl. Asked about why Aguirre had not been sanctioned if the Church had information before it was presented to the criminal courts, Errázuriz answered that they believed rehabilitation and the subsequent pastoral reintegration were possible after an “excellent spiritual accompaniment” in Costa Rica and Honduras. This decision allowed Aguirre to continue abusing children when he went back to Chile. Errázuriz appointed him parish priest in Santiago after working for two years in a pastoral vicariate. The Supreme Court considered that the Archdiocese of Santiago acted with “negligence in the control” of its dependent, although it denied an economical sanction against the archbishopric. Errazuriz recognized himself rejected any collaboration with civil justice because “the bishop [himself] has a role of pastor and father […] before each priest of his diocese; I don’t know if any father would go to justice to report his son.”
The Sodalitium and Figari. Errázuriz recognized himself as a friend of Luis Fernando Figari, founder and head of the Sodalitium of Christian Life until 2010. The Sodalitium was created in Peru in 1971 and recognized by the Vatican in 1997. It is present in eight countries of the Americas and Italy. Figari and three other high-ranking members abused at least 19 minors and 10 adults for about three decades, according to an internal investigation. Prosecutors in Peru reported that Figari orchestrated the sexual and physical abuse of young men. In 2014, when the criminal investigation began, Figari left for Rome, where he currently lives. The Vatican spokesman Greg Burke stated, “the directive not to return to Peru was issued in order to block any contact of Figari with Sodalitium. The Vatican will in no way oppose Peruvian efforts to detain Figari.” In 2018, Pope Francis ordered the takeover of the organization after a Vatican investigation. (The complaints against the Sodalitium are much broader. The accusations include, for example, the case of one of it members, the Archbishop of Piura, José Antonio Eguren, who has been accused of land trafficking and being connected to La Gran Cruz, a criminal organization involved in homicide, money laundering, and extortion.) Errázuriz, as secretary of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life, is supposed to have contributed to the pontifical approval of the Sodalitium. Years later, as Archbishop of Santiago, Errázuriz invited the Sodalitium to establish itself in Chile, where it owns a university and a school, which counts important businessmen among its ranks. In 2016, the cardinal visited Figari in the home provided by the Vatican in Rome. When asked about his meeting, Errázuriz replied: “He is an old friend. As the saying goes, ‘from the fallen tree everybody makes firewood’. It is more Christian to help the tree get up.”
Pinochet. Errázuriz never hid his sympathy for Pinochet. In 2001, he said that people should beware with lawsuits for crimes against humanity because “excessive justice can become an injustice.” In an interview with the Frankfurter Allgemeine, he attributed the Chilean economic success to Pinochet’s reforms to the State: “They can only be done in dictatorship.” (Later he denied having said it). When Pinochet stepped down as senator for life in 2002, in a “friendly meeting”, he asked Errázuriz to present his resignation to the Congress in his name. When the dictator died in 2006, Errázuriz also officiated the main mass in his honor. During the ceremony, he asked God to “forgive him [Pinochet], that He takes into account all the good that he did.” The cardinal added: “The higher the authority, the brighter his qualities but also his mistakes.”
Pope Francis’ decisions : In September 2018, Pope Francis defrocked Karadima. He was expelled under the same charges he was sentenced to a life of “prayer and penance” (link) • For his part, Cristián Precht was expelled after new accusations of sexual abuse in the context of a current investigation against the congregation of the Marist Brothers at the time he was Vicar of Solidarity during Pinochet’s regime. The allegations are under investigation by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith and the Chilean justice. In a statement, Precht denied the accusations once again. (link)
Chilean Public Prosecution Office (Ministerio Público) has made a great advance in investigating sexual abuses committed by priests. As of Sept. 2018, there were 119 lawsuits and 167 accused churchmen: 7 bishops, 96 priests, 4 deacons, 30 other members of religious congregations, 10 laymen, and 20 unspecified people. Among the bishops, Carlos Pellegrín of Chillán and Cristián Contreras of San Felipe were both accused of sexual abuse; their resignations were accepted by the Vatican. There are 178 victims reported, 79 of them were underage. (link)
On the role of Cardinal Ezzati and Errázuriz : The Chilean prosecutor office requested the Vatican, through the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the canonical investigation files against some priests. Cardinal Ricardo Ezzati, accused of the crime of concealment in a lawsuit presented by Juan Pablo Hermosilla, was required to give a statement in court. Ezzati requested to postpone the statement, originally scheduled in August, to study new evidence against him. He would be called again in the coming months. His resignation has not yet been accepted by the Pope. • Errázuriz is also under investigation for concealment but the prosecutor has not provided further information. The Chilean Church declassified the list of priests condemned for sexual abuse, both civil and canonical. Only 43 priests were included (link). More recently, Cardinal Errázuriz was not only fired from the Cardinal Council by Pope Francis (C9), but also a Chilean prosecutor announced that he will require Errázuriz to state as accused for covering up abuses in an investigation against the priest Jorge Lapalagne (occurred 10 years ago). Cardinal Ezzati (bishop of Santiago) is in the same situation. (Source 1 ; Source 2).
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Sacré Collège » (french version) / « The Sacred College» (english version).

Europa Multiclub

– Gay sauna in Rome situated in a building own by the Vatican.
◊ See Tarcisio Bertone.
The Vatican owns 20 apartments within the same block that houses Europe’s biggest gay sauna, Europa Multiclub, at via Carducci 2 in Rome. The building hosts the Congregation for the Evangelisation of Peoples and was brought by the Holy See for 20 million euros. See : Repubblica ; Huffington Post.
– “In a huge building owned by the Vatican, where a Cardinal lives in a 12-room apartment on the first-floor. There are 18 other Vatican apartments in the block, many of which house priests. The Holy See had purchased the building for €23 million. It was previously owned by a company from Busto Arsizio, in North Italy, which bought it for €9 million and resold it for €23 million” (BBC).
– Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, according to La Repubblica, was the main supporter of the purchase.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Le Vice–Pape » (french version) / « The Vice-Pope» (english version).

Ezzati (Ricardo)

– Cardinal Archbishop of Santiago (Chile).
◊ See: Karadima, Fernando; Erráruiz, Francisco Javier; Sexual abuse in the Chilean church.
– Italian-born Ricardo Ezzati is currently Chile’s senior churchman. In the 1980s, Ezzati was Provincial Inspector (superior) of the Salesian congregation in Chile. In the 1990s, his mentor Francisco Javier Errázuriz, then-secretary of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life, called Ezzati to work with him in Rome. Pope John Paul II appointed Ezzati Bishop of Valdivia (Chile) in 1996 and auxiliary bishop of Errázuriz in the diocese of Santiago in 2001. Pope Benedict XVI promoted Ezzati to the Archdiocese of Concepción in 2006 and four years later he succeeded Errázuriz in Santiago. He was elevated to cardinal in 2014.
– Ezzati was one of the five bishops who carried out the apostolic visitation of Marcel Maciel’s Legionaries of Christ under Pope Benedict XVI. The Legionaries have a strong presence in Chile.
Sexual abuse. Ezzati has been accused of obstruction of justice in the case of Rimsky Rojas, a Salesian priest and teacher who worked in the south of Chile and had close ties to Cardinal Silva Henríquez, the Archbishop of Santiago who led human rights defense during Pinochet’s rule. The case against Ezzati was dismissed, but the victims insist on his cover-up. Rojas was accused of sexual abuse against three students in a Salesian school in the 1980s when Ezzati was superior of the congregation. At that time, a group of parents complained about Rojas’ behavior and the priest was sent out on a mission to Guinea, apparently after the intervention of Ezzati. Back in Chile, Rojas worked in another Salesian school where, again, he was accused of molestation and was involved in the mysterious disappearance of a student, also in an orphanage. Rojas committed suicide in 2011 after a victim presented the first lawsuit against him.
Cover-up accusation in the Karadima case. Victims of abuse by the influential priest Fernando Karadima accused Ezzati of inaction in complicity with Errázuriz.
A leaked e-mail scandal exposed how Ezzati and Errázuriz developed a plan to prevent Juan Carlos Cruz, one of the Karadima case plaintiffs, from being appointed member of the Pontifical Commission for the Protection of Minors created by the Council of Cardinals. In the Christmas of 2011, Ezzati visited Karadima with a box of chocolates, generating a new controversy about his position in sexual abuse cases. The cardinal said he would be always with those who suffer.
Homosexuality and gender identity. Through the Nuncio Ivo Scapolo, Ezzati reported to the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith three renowned priests who questioned the traditional doctrine in areas that are sensitive for the Church. The evidence included interviews where the priests Felipe Berríos, José Aldunate, and Mariano Puga supported gay marriage and the decriminalization of abortion, and also criticized the classism of the Catholic education. • Ezzati also opposed same-sex civil union law in Chile: “Legalizing de facto unions is unacceptable […]. Even more serious is the legalization of homosexual unions.”• During the discussion of a gender identity law, Ezzati compared transgender people with pets: “A cat will not become a dog just because I give it a dog’s name.” He had to apologize later.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Sacré Collège» (french version) / « The Sacred College» (english version).

Etchegaray (Roger)

– French Cardinal.
– Born in 1922. He served as President of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace (1984–1998) and President of the Pontifical Council Cor Unum (1984–1995). He was elevated to the rank of cardinal in 1979.
– Roger Etchegaray, J’avance comme un âne, Fayard, 2006 ; J’ai senti battre le cœur du monde (conversations with Bernard Lecomte), Fayard, 2007 ; L’homme à quel prix, La Martinière, 2012.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Le Code Maritain» (french version) / « The Maritain Code » (english version).


— F —


Fellini (Federico)

– Italian director.
– On the ecclesiastic fashion show by Fellini, in Fellini Rome, see the excerpt here.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Foglie (Gianni Delle)

– Italian Gay activist
– Foglie Gianni Delle Foglie founded the first gay bookshop in Milan. He was extremely interested by gay Catholic writers. He said : « Ci hanno lasciato quasi soli, col Vaticano. Ma forse va bene cosi : lasciateci soli, questa è una guerra tra froci ! » (interview with Michele Santoro, en 2000 ; see also La Reppublica). Gianni Delle Foglie died in 2007. (Trans. in french : « Les gays ont été laissés presque seuls face au Vatican. Mais c’est peut-être bien ainsi : laissez-nous ensembles ! La bataille entre les gays et le Vatican est une guerre entre pédés ! »
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Domus Sanctae Marthae».

Foucault (Michel)

– French philosopher.
– Michel Foucault, “De l’Amitié comme mode de vie”, April 1981, reed. in Michel Foucault, Dits et écrits, tome IV, p. 163-167
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

France

◊ See: Cardinal Barbarin ; Tony Anatrella ; Archbishop Michel Aupetit.
– On Catholicisme in France : Henri Tincq, Les Catholiques, Hachette Littératures, 2008 ; La Grande peur des catholiques de France, Grasset, 2018.
– On Homosexuality in the clergy in France : Christine Clerc, “Eglise et homosexualité : le grand secret”, Marianne, Dec 19, 2012.
– On the “Mariage pour tous” debate : Sylvain Mouillard et Kim Hullot-Guiot, “Manif pour tous, la vraie photo de famille”, Liberation, Sept 13, 2013 ; Severin Naudet, “Barbarin contre les barbares”, Liberation, Sept 20, 2012.
– On “Sens Commun” : Olivier Faye et Matthieu Goar, “Sens commun, L’encombrant ami des Républicains”, Le Monde, Oct 14, 2017.
– On Sexual abuses : Isabelle de Gaulmyn, Histoire d’un silence, Seuil, 2016. Marie-Christine Tabet, Grâce à Dieu, c’est prescrit, L’Affaire Barbarin, Robert Laffont, 2017 (see also : Journal du dimanche, March 12, 2017). Henri Tincq, “Pédophilie dans l’Église : un scandale qui n’en finit pas”, Slate, April 2, 2017. Overall dossier by Medipart about Priest Sexual abuses in France (Mediapart).
– For a right-wing point of view, see : Jean Sévillia, La France catholique, Michel Lafon 2015 ; Tempus, 2017.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « La Fille aînée de l’Eglise ».

Francis (Pope), François (Pape)

◊ See the entry : Pope Francis

— G —



Gaillot (Jacques)

– French Bishop.
– On his position on homosexuality : Le Point ;
– “Rehabilitation” by Pope Francis (Le Monde et Le Point).
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « La Fille aînée de l’Eglise».

Gamberini (Paolo)

– An Italian theologian.
– A Jesuit, Paolo Gamberini teaches at University of San Francisco. See his academic articles here. He played a role in the synod on the family. See his article : “Coppie omosessuali – Vivere, sentire e pensare da credenti”, Il Regno
– Attualità 60 (2015) 129-136. (First version under the title : «Vivere, sentire e pensare da credenti omosessuali», in F. Corbisiero (a cura di), Comunità omosessuali, Le scienze sociali sulla popolazione LGBT, Franco Angeli, Milano
2013, 97-114, Il Regno (here).
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Gandhi (Mahatma)

– Joseph Ratzinger was fascinated by Gandhi’s choice of celibacy. He invited Gandhi’s grandson to the Vatican. He mentions him often. See, for example, Ratzinger, Introduction to Christianity, trans. in French : Chemins vers Jesus (see especially the chapter on Gandhi).
– We know from recent biographies of Gandhi’s possible “homophily”. See : Joseph Lelyveld, Great Soul, Mahatma Gandhi and his struggle with India, especially pp. 79-104. I also found the letters between Gandhi and his friend Kallenbach in South Africa, see my book F. Martel, Global Gay, Flammarion, 2013. See also this article in the New York Times.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Gänswein (Georg)

– Personal assistant of Pope Benedict XVI
◊ See also : Pope Benedict XVI.
­– Prefect of the Papal Household and personal secretary to Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI
– Even though he has been on the cover of People magazine, Georg Gänswein is a kind of secret figure. A few elements of his biography can be find in : Bernard Lecomte, Benoît XVI, Perrin, 2002, reed. 2011 ; Andrea Tornielli, Benoît XVI, La Biographie, Citadelle, 2005.
– About his speech on the two Popes, “un membro attivo e un membro contemplative”, original in : “Presentazione del volume di Roberto Regoli, Oltre La Crisi Della Chiesa”, Il Pontificato di Benedetto XVI, ed. Lindau s.r.l., Torino, 2016 (see p. 8).
– On the ceremony of the consecration of Georg Gänswein as archibishop, presided by Pope Benedict XVI, see the full video of the ceremony. I also found the official book of the ceremony, which is 106 pages long. See also : Corriere ; Formiche ; Espresso (Sandro Magister) ; Corriere. On the late arrival of the Pope to the Angelus, because of the Georg ceremony, see his speech.
– See also : Andrea Tornielli, “Le père Georg : l’homme qui murmurait à l’oreille des pontifes”, Vanity Fair (Italy), Nov 2013 ; reed. Vanity Fair, France ; see also : Caroline Pigozzi, Une gueule d’ange au Vatican, Paris Match, Feb 20, 2013 ; and Michael Meier, “Der emeritierte Papst Rechtfertigt sich, Tages Anzeiger (Meier mentions some Vatileaks documents that have circulated in Germany).
• Selection of photos by the website Gawker.
• Allegations of bromance : “Pope Benedict Gay? Georg Gaenswein Relationship Sparks Rumors in Vatican” (Hollywood Gossip) ; Father Georg, from the gay gossip to the role of Prefect (Here) ; The Gays are welcomed with respect (here) ; Father Georg: “There is a gay lobby in the Vatican, but it’s not that powerful” (here). See also : Colm Tóibín, « Among the Flutterers », London Review of Books, June 1st, 2010 (a key article about Ratzinger and the gay issue) ; Adam Taylor, “Leading Catholic blogger sees more evidence that the Pope is gay”, Business Insider, Feb., 27, 2013 ; Andrew Sullivan, Two Popes, One Secretary, see here ; Francis DeBarnado, “Is the Retired Pope is Gay?”, New Ways Ministry, March 5, 2013 ; Michael Dickinson, “Meet Gorgeous Georg, the Holy Pontiff’s Live-in Partner”, Counterpunch, Jan 11, 2013 ; “Allemagne: Benoît XVI outé par une ancienne camarade d’université”, Vice, 2011 (see also here).
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Passivo e bianco».

Genet (Jean)

– French writer.
– Biography, I use Edmund White, Jean Genet, Gallimard, 1993.
– On the use of the word “dérive” by Genet, see this play “Dérive” about his works : https://www.galpon.ch/galpon_archives/Derive/index.html ; see also the book by Marie-Haude Caraës and Jean Fernandez, Tanger ou la dérive littéraire : Essai sur la colonisation littéraire d’un lieu : Barthes, Bowles, Burroughs, Capote, Genet, Morand, Publisud, 2003.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Germany

◊ See also : Benedict XVI ; Cardinal Müller ; Eugen Drewermann ; Cardinal Kasper. On David Berger, see the entry: Berger. For Princess Mariae Gloria von Thurn und Taxis, see Thurn und Taxis.
– On German gay literature, I have consulted Axel Schock, Die Bibliothek von Sodom. Das Buch der schwulen Bücher, published by Eichborn Verlag Ag, 2000 (in German ; see the part on Thomas Mann).
– About Bishop Tebartz-van Elst, see this article (the article shows not only a photo with Gloria and Tebartz-van Elst, but also tells that Mgr Tebartz had visited Georg Ratzinger in Regensburg before his visit to Rome and then met Cardinal Mueller in Rome and that both Gänswein and Müller spoke in favor of Tebartz-van Elst when he was criticized because of his expenses for his new bishop’s palace. Gänswein supported Tebartz-van Elst after his removal as bishop : see article here). However, in between when figures from a research commission were made public, Gänswein was also critical about the expenses made by Tebartz (here). Cardinal Meisner also defended Tebartz (here). After his removal from Limburg, Tebartz took residence in Regensburg (here) where he has a solid network of friends. He was invited by the current bishop, Rudolf Voderholzer. It also says that the chair of the Bavarian comittee of lay Catholics, Albert Schmid, was a close friend of Tebartz and former mayor of Regensburg.
– On Michael Brinkschröder, a gay theologist and religion teacher (here and here)
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Giani (Domenico)

– Head of the Vatican Gendarmeria
– See Nicolas Diat, L’Homme qui ne voulait pas être pape, Histoire secrete d’un règne, Albin Michel, 2014 (on suspicion about D. Giani, see p. 300-302).
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Le Vice Pape» (french version) / « The Vice-Pope» (english version).

Gide (André)

– French Writer, Nobel prize.
– On the life of Gide, I use mainly the biography by George D. Painter, Gide, Mercure de France, 1968. It’s an old one, outmoded, but my favorite. For a more modern approach, see Pierre Lepape, André Gide, le messager, Paris, Seuil, 1997.
– André Gide himself wrote several books about his life : among them, his masterpiece, Si le Grain ne meurt, Gallimard, 1955 and his Journal, Gallimard, vol. I 1887-1925, 1748 p. ; vol. II 1926-1950, 1649 p. See also : Ainsi soit-il ou Les Jeux sont faits, Gallimard, 1952, reed. 2001.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel (and especially in the chapter Le Code Maritain / The Maritain Code).

Gingrich (Callista)

– US Ambassador to the Vatican
– Jason Horowitz, “Trump to Nominate Callista Gingrich as Vatican Ambassador”, New York Times, May 15, 2017.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « La Théorie du genre » (french version) / « Theory of Gender» (english version).

Glodz (Slawoj Leszek)

– Archbishop from Poland (Gdansk)
◊ See : Poland ; Cardinal Dziwisz.
– The archbishop has been well-known for having a problem with alcoholism: main article here (in Polish). Summary : On October 2013, the weekly magazine « Wprost » quoted the chaplain’s story. « The Archbishop woke him up at night, drunk, and ordered him to play the accordion for the dance. » During the drunken feasts, he sent him to the city looking for a special kind of sausage, ordered alcohol to be poured, shouting: « What are you fucking doing?! You even can’t pour vodka!” « In the morning on a hangover he called on him, demanding  “actimel” (yogurt) and shouting: « Be my actimelek [small actimel]! « Wprost » wrote also: “We have a feudal system here. There is a Boss and there are subordinates. And everything would be good, because we vow obedience to the Archbishop. But if this archbishop does not behave like a Catholic priest, but as a cruel ruler, then we must talk about it …”
– In February 2017, Głódź’s deputy bishop, Wiesław Szlachetka celebrated a mass in Gdańsk at which the state energy company Energa entrusted the company and employees of Divine Providence and the Mother of the Holy Sacrifice. The company revealed the cost of the mass to be more than 12 thousand zlotys with gifts for the church. Energa posters and flags stand at the altar like a figure of the Virgin Mary but they are much bigger than the Virgin (sources : article here, in Polish).
– In September 2018, Archbishop Głódź handed Jacek Kurski, the chairman of public television, a special expensive ring. He said to Kurski: « In general, this television has changed its face. Let it continue to happen. » (sources : article here, in Polish).
– Głódź for years communicated information about John Paul II and his policy towards eastern churches to the civil service of the PRL (Communist Poland) – according to IPN documents (revealed in June 2018). After the fall of communism, the city of Gdansk has never said anything about his past.
Głódź was employed in the Vatican Congregation for Eastern Churches in 1981 as the head of the section of the Byzantine-Ukrainian Church and the section of the Church in Belarus, the Byzantine-Ruthenian Rite. He knew everything about the congregation and had frequent access to Pope John Paul II. (sources : article here, in Polish).
– Other facts about Głódź: They even carry his robes! The Metropolitan Archbishop of Gdansk, Sławoj Leszek Głódź, surrounded himself with a court of people serving him. And he lived like a nobleman – in an episcopal residence with a herd of fallow deer riding around the garden, having a limousine and a generous retirement at his disposal (source 1 ; source 2) ; 20 years of silence about Głódź’s alcoholic excesses. « It does not matter to the average Pole that a bishop is a drunkard” (source) ; Polish special services treated the archbishop as its informant when he worked in the Vatican (Source) ; Archbishop Głódź to the photographer: “Fuck off!” (Source) ; Archbishop Głódź on the street and abroad. « Sad », « terrifying », « the archbishop speaks the language of PiS » (source) ; Pope Francis shook the Church, uttering extremely critical words about the priests living above the state. Polish public opinion very quickly agreed with the head of the Church, referring to the case of Archbishop Głódź (source).
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Sacré College » (french version) / « The Sacred College » (english version).

Green (Julien)

– French Writer.
– I read with great interest several volumes of the Journal by Julien Green, his terrific autobiography Jeunes Années, Autobiographie, Plon, 2011, and also a few novels and plays, among them Sud.
– On Green’s life, see the two books by his « compagnon » : Robert de Saint-Jean, Julien Green par lui-même, Seuil, 1967 and, by de Saint-Jean (with Luc Estang), Julien Green, Seuil, 1990.
– See also : Nicolas Fayet, Julien Green « J’ai aimé », Bartillat, 2003 (a biography) ; and Angelo Rinaldi, « Julien Green », L’Express, April 29, 1983.
– On Green/Maritain see : Julien Green, Jacques Maritain, Une Grande amitié. Correspondance, 1926-1972, Idées/Gallimard, 1982 and Yves Floucat, Julien Green et Jacques Maritain, L’amour du vrai et la fidélité du Coeur, Pierre Téqui ed., 1997.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « The Maritain Code» (french version) / « Le Code Maritain» (english version).

Groër (Hans Hermann)

– Cardinal in Vienna, Austria.
◊ See also : Austria ; Christoph Schönborn
– Beginning 1995, Cardinal Groër was accused of multiple sexual abuses. In an interview with Austrian Catholic news agency Kauthpress, Cardinal Schönborn of Vienna said in 2010 that Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger had attempted to convince Pope John Paul II to initiate the investigation against Groër but that Cardinal Angelo Sodano had blocked his attempt to investigate Groër’s activities (multiple press clippings from The Independent, Famille Chrétienne, Catholic Herald, The Guardian, etc.). An investigation by Hubertus Czernin led to the claim in Czernin’s book, Das Buch Groer, that Groër had abused more than 2,000 young men. Groër died in 2003. Source : Independent ; Famille Chrétienne ; Catholic Herald ; The Guardian ; Telegraph. See also : Jason Berry, “Francis Must Fix-Up Cover-Up culture that John-Paul II enabled”, NCROnline.org, Feb 21, 2019.
– See also the book about all the Groër’s Story : Hubertus Czernin, Das Buch Groer : Eine Kirchencrhokik, Dokumentation, 1998.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Dissidents ».

Guitton (Jean)

– French Writer.
– I mainly use the autobiography, Jean Guitton, Un Siècle, une vie, Robert Laffont, 1988, and Jean Guitton, Une recherche de Dieu. Entretiens avec Francesca Pini, Ed. du Felin, 1996. See also, Jean-Jacques Antier, La Vie de Jean Guitton, 1901-1999, Perrin, 1999. For another point of view, see : Yves Congar, Mon journal du concile, I, Cerf, 2002.
– On Jean Guitton’s marriage : Guitton married Marie-Louise Bonnet (1901-1974) after the Second World War. In his autobiography, he writes a chapter on his wife, who he met in 1940, when he was a professor at the University of Montpellier : « J’avais cherché un ange pour tenir la maison, veiller sur les poussières. L’ange se présenta sous la forme de Marie-Louise, qui était professeur d’histoire de l’art et de science ménagère au lycée de Montpellier » (Un siècle, une vie, Robert Laffont, 1988, see pp. 420-421 and 422-429).
– For the reference of Jean Guitton about “camaraderie”, see Jean Guitton, Le Christ de ma vie, Dialogue avec Joseph Doré, Desclée, 1987, pp. 132-133.
– On Jean Guitton and Paul VI, I use mainly their interesting dialogue, Dialogue avec Paul VI, François-Xavier de Guibert publisher, 2001, 2nd ed. (See the introduction p. 5, and Paul VI Bienheureux, by Luigi Villa, who comments on the allusion of homosexuality). See : Paul VI Secret, Desclée du Nouvier and Journal de ma vie, Tome 1 & 2. See also this article by Philippe Chenaux, “Jean Guitton et le concile Vatican II” (source) : Chenaux is a professor at University of Latran, he analyses the complex relationship between Guitton and Paul VI, but it is easy “de lire entre les lignes”.
– On Jean Guitton and his life, the long inaugural text by Florence Delay on Académie Française is interesting (with some allusions to his sexuality and misogyny) : « Jean Guitton et le mystère chrétien ».
– Jean Guitton, born in August 18, 1901, was married to Marie-Louise Bonnet on Sept 3, 1948 in Nice ; she was born on March 22, 1901 and died on Jan 18, 1974.
– On Jean Guitton, I also used two other books : Anne Creuchet, Monsieur Chrétien, souvenirs de Jean Guitton, Bayard, 2009 (Creuchet was Guitton’s assistant for more than 20 years) ; and a novel by Véronique de Bure, Une Confession, éditions Stock, 2009 (de Bure was also close to Guitton).
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « L’Amour d’Amitié» (french version) / « The Loving Friendship» (english version).

— H —

Herranz (Julian)

– Spanish Cardinal
– Confusion of homosexuality and sexual abuse : speech by Julian Herranz on April 29, 2002 at Catholic University in Milan : “Pedophilia is a concrete form of homosexuality”.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Vatileaks ».

Heterosexual cases

Andrea Contin : Former priest from San Lazzaro di Padova.
He was the protagonist of a scandal involving orgies in the rectory with different women. He has been investigated for violence and for facilitating prostitution. (See Il Fatto Quotidiano ; Il Gazzettino.
Vicenza, a priest was filmed while having sex with a woman, Maria Narcisa Enache, and was later blackmailed by Radouane El Mohamadi. The priest, a 50-year-old man, was asked to pay 15,000 euros and decided to report everything to the authorities. The couple has been sentenced to 3.5 years in jail. (See Libero Quotidiano and Corriere del Veneto).
Sante Sguotti : Former priest from Monterosso. He had a child with his partner and wrote a book about pedophilic priests: “Prete pedofilo si diventa. Pedofilia e celibato nella Chiesa di papa Francesco”, published by La Zisa in 2015 (See : here and here).
– Giulio Antoniol : Former priest from Feltre. He married his girlfriend Alba in 2013 (Corriere del Veneto).
Paolo Spoladore : A former priest. He had a baby with a woman and, in 2015, was forced to leave the priesthood (here).
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

HIV

◊ See: AIDS

Homophile, Homophilia

◊ See also : Amour d’Amitié.
– The expression was in regular use in the 1950s : the first US gay association, The Mattachine Society, adopted the word “homophile” in 1950 (See David Carter, Stonewall, Saint Martin’s Griffin, 2011, p. 18). The French association Arcadie, founded by André Baudry, did the same in the same years.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Le Code Maritain » et « L’Amour d’amitié » (french version) and « The Maritain Code » (french version) / « Loving Friendship» (english version).

Homosexuality, History of Homosexuality & the Bible

◊ See also : Sodom
Main references : John Boswell, Christianity, Social Tolerance and Homosexuality, University of Chicago Press, 1980 ; Mark D. Jordan, The Silence of Sodom : Homosexuality in Modern Catholicism, University of Chicago Press, 2002. See also : Michael Joseph Gross, “The Vatican’s Secret Life”, Vanity Fair, Nov. 15, 2013. I also use a few other articles, among them : Alex Ross, “Love on the march”, The New Yorker, Nov. 12, 2012.
– Homosexuality in the Bible : official texts : Genesis 19 ; Leviticus 18.22 and 20.13. See also in this dictionary for other occurrences: Sodom.
In The New Testament : Epistle to the Romans/Epitre aux Romains 9.29 ; on Paul and homosexuality, see John Boswell, Christianity, Social Tolerance and Homosexuality, University of Chicago Press, 1980, pp. 106-109. See also The Second Epistle to the Corinthians and the famous sentence about “une écharde dans la chair” (12,7). See also l’Évangile selon Saint Luc (7, 1-10).
– For the mentions of homosexuality in the Bible, or its interpretation, I mainly use the indispensible book by Thomas Römer and Loyse Bonjour, L’homosexualité dans le Proche-Orient ancien et la Bible, Labor and Fides, Genève, 2016 (for Leviticus, see chapter II, pp. 39-54 ; for Genesis 19, see chapter II, pp. 54-64 ; for David and Jonathan’s love, see chapter III, pp. 65-84 ; for the New Testament, see chapter IV, pp. 113-121 ; see also the conclusion and the bibliography). I also use the classic book by John Boswell, Christianity, Social Tolerance and Homosexuality, University of Chicago Press, 1980.
– See also : Pasquale Quaranta, Omosessualità e vangelo. Franco Barbero risponde, Gabrielli Editori, 2008 ; Maurice Lever, Les bûchers de Sodome. Histoire des “infâmes”, Fayard, 1985 ; Thomas Römer, Dieu obscure, Cruauté, sexe et violence dans l’Ancien Testament, Labor & Fides, Genève, 2009 (see chapter IV, especially pp. 100-107).
Homosexuality and the Vatican : The main official texts about homosexuality are :
Humanae Vitae (encyclical, July 1968) : subtitled « On the Regulation of Birth », this encyclical reaffirms the position of the Catholic Church on contraception, marriage and the sanctity of life. The celibacy of priests is also reaffirmed.
Persona Humana (edicted on Dec 29, 1975 ; made public on Jan 15, 1976), a “declaration” on homosexuality, masturbation, and chastity, published by the Congregation of the Doctrine of the Faith under Pope Paul VI : see here (Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei, Declaratio de quibusdam quaestionibus ad sexualem ethicam spectantibus, Dec. 29, 1975 : AAS 68 (1976) 77-96 ; texte officiel français dans DocCath 73 (1976), pp. 108-114.)
Catechism : here.
• Official letter to Bishops : Oct 30, 1986
• Official letter : “Observations au sujet des propositions de loi sur la non-discrimination des personnes homosexuelles” (1992) : here.
• “Considérations à propos des projets de reconnaissance juridique des unions entre personnes homosexuelles”, voir le texte ici (2003)
“The gift of the priestly vocation” is the most recent review of Church regulations, which reaffirms the Vatican’s stance on excluding, as much as possible, homosexual individuals from taking up the priesthood.
– See also : Gerard Loughlin, ed., Queer Theology, Rethinking the Western Body, Blackwell, 2007 (see especially the chapters on Thomas Aquinas and Hans Urs von Balthasar) ; Xavier Thevenot, Homosexualités masculines et morale chrétienne, Cerf, 1985 ; Valter Danna/Ufficio per la pastorale, Fede e Omosessualita, Assistenza pastorale e accompagnamento spirituale ; Il Posto Dell’Altro, Le persone omosessuali nelle chiese cristiane, ed. La Meridiana ; Domenico Pezzini, Alle Porte di Sion ; André Vermont, “Homosexualité : le Saint-Siège rectifie le tir”, Libération, Nov 1986 ; Philippe Delaroche, “Rome precise sa doctrine sur l’homosexualité”, Le Figaro, Nov 1, 1986 ; Claire Lesegretain, “Rome recuse le mariage homosexuel”, La Croix, August 1, 2003 ; Isabelle de Gaulmyn, “Rome interdit l’ordination des prêtres homosexuels”, Le Croix, Nov 24, 2005 ;
Homosexuality in the church today : Carmelo Abbate, “Le Notti brave dei preti gay”, Panorama, 29 July 2010 (cover article) ; Sandro Magister, “La Lobby Gay”, L’Espresso, July 25, 2013 (cover article, mainly on Mgr Ricca) ; Michael Joseph Gross, “The Vatican’s Secret Life”, Vanity Fair, Nov. 15, 2013 ; Father Wagner, Gay Catholics Priests, San Francisco, 1981 (see here) ; J.G. Wolf, Gay Priests, 1989 ; J. Potel, Ils se sont maries… et après, L’Harmattan, 1986 ; Robert Aldrich, Gay Life and Culture, A World History, Universe, 2006 (some chapters of the book) ; Ferruccio F. Castellano, ed., “Fede Cristiana e omosessualita, Quaderni di Agape, 15 Giugno 1980, n°6. See also Andrew Sullivan, “Gay Priests and the lives they no longer want to hide”, New York Magazine, Jan 21, 2019. In the context of Brazil, see the film Amares Santos by the journalist Dener Giovanini.
On the links between homosexual vocation and catholic vocation, see : Colm Tóibín, « Among the Flutterers », London Review of Books, June 1st, 2010 (a key article about Ratzinger and the gay issue). See also : A brief history of Catholic homosexual groups in Italy from 1980 to 2003 by Pasquale Quaranta ; Homosexuality, the Church, and religion : Pasquale Quaranta interviews the writer Tommaso Giartosio ; See also : Il porto dell’ altro, Le persone omosessuali nelle chiese cristiane, La Meridiane, 2000 (here). See also : Elizabeth Stuart, Chosen, Gay Catholic Priests Tell Their Stories, Geoffrey Chapman, 1993.
Father James Martin : Martin is a consultant for the Secretariat for Communications of the Holy See ; he is known to be close to father Antonio Spadaro, the Pope Francis’ Jesuit unofficial adviser. On his appointment, see : Medias Presse Info. The gay friendly priest believes that many saints were probably homosexuals. – A collection of “studies” and negative opinions about homosexuality from doctors, psychologists and psychiatrists from all around the World (here).
On New Ways Ministries : Howell Williams, “Homosexuality and the American Catholic Church : Reconfiguring the Silence, 1971-1999, Florida State University, Theses.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Hoover (J. Edgar)

– Former Director of the FBI
– On J. Edgar Hoover, I use mainly : Curt Gentry, J. Edgar Hoover : The Man and the secrets, Norton, 2011 and Kenneth Whyte, Hoover, An Extraordinary life in extraordinary times, Knopf, 2017.
{further reading} This subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.


— I —



Ideology of the church

– Limits, problems, control, oppression.
– On the ideology of the church, I have used two important books which do not directly address the questions of the Church but helped me to think about the internal system of oppression, control of people, lies to the press, and the absence of freedom of expression which can be understood from the history of communist ideology : Albert Camus, L’homme révolté, Gallimard, 1951 ; François Furet, Le Passé d’une illusion, Robert Laffont/Calmann Lévy, 1995. I also read during my research André Gide, Retour de l’URSS, Gallimard, 1936 ; Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, L’Archipel du Goulag, Seuil, 1974-1976 ; Claude Lefort, Un homme en trop, Réflexions sur L’Archipel du Goulag, Seuil, 1976.
{further reading} This subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Immigration & Migrants

– On migrants travelling along the Balkans road or the Mediterranean road, I use a few statistics from Frontex.
– On migrants and migrations, I use a few statistics from : Declan Walsh, « Teenagers from Egypt swell exodus to Europe », New York Times, June 23, 2016 ; Heba Saleh, « Death or Italy, say desperate Egyptian migrants », Financial Times, October 8, 2016.
{further reading} This subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Intellectuals, Intellectual life (the Church and)

– A critical view on the separation of the Church and intellectuals : see René Rémond, Le Christianisme en accusation, entretiens avec Marc Leboucher, Desclée de Brouwer, 2000 and René Rémond, Le Nouvel Anti-christianisme, Desclée de Brouwer, 2005. Jean Delumeau, L’Avenir de Dieu, CNRS Editions, 2015. For a critical reading of the relations between the Church and intellectuals since Vatican II, see also : François Bœspflug, Pourquoi j’ai quitté l’Ordre… et comment il m’a quitté, ed. J. C. Béhar, 2016.
{further reading} This subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Internet (websites, apps, social networks)

– On Venerabilis : the website, created in 2007, is not available anymore. We found it on the Dark Web where it has been possible to reread numerous archives, chats etc. See : TDG ; TagesAnzeiger.
– On the Deep / Dark Web : Les numériques.
– On Grindr : on the blackmail and violence on Grindr, here.
{further reading} This subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Les Séminaristes » (french version) / « Seminarians » (english version).

Introvigne (Massimo)

– Italian sociologist
– See also : Paul Ariès, La Face cachée du Pape François, publisher: Max Milo, 2016 (see “Massimo Introvigne, le protecteur de l’Eglise”, pp. 97-104).
{further reading} This subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Ireland & Sexual abuse scandals

◊ See also: John Paul I.
– On Cardinal Keith O’Brien see : Laurie Goodstein, “Now Gathering in Rome, a Conclave of Fallible Cardinals”, New York Times, Feb 26, 2013.
– On the Ferns Report see : Colm Tóibín, “At St Peter’s”, London Review of Books, Dec 1, 2005. https://www.lrb.co.uk/v27/n23/colm-toibin/at-st-peters
– On the figure of the personal assistant of Pope John Paul I, Mgr John Magee, who was critized for gays’ bad conduct and who was later harshly critized in numerous sexual abuse cases see : Henry McDonald, “Irish report on child sex abuse berates Vatican”, The Guardian, July 13, 2011 (see also : The Guardian). For the official report of the Cloyne Diocese Report by the National Board for Safeguarding Children in the Catholic Church in Ireland, which mentions John Magee’s homosexual desires on § 26.4, p. 320 (here).
– For background, read : Siobhan O’Grady, “The last time a Pope visited Ireland, homosexuality was a crime. Now the Irish prime minister is gay », The Washington Post, August 25, 2018.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « L’Amour d’amitié  » (french version) / « Loving Friendship » (english version).

Italian Episcopal Conference

◊ See : CEI.

Italy

◊ See other entries : CEI ; Boffo ; Cardinal Bagnasco ; Cardinal Ruini, etc. For Pasolini, see: Pasolini ; for Dante, see: Dante.
LGBT History : On the long history of homosexuality of Italian bishops see, for the pontificate of Pope Pius XI : David Kertzer, The Pope and Mussolini : The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe, Random House, 2015 (Kertzer discovered Mussolini’s secret police files about the homosexuality of the entourage of Pope Pius XI) ; Andrea Pini, Quando eravamo froci, Gli omosessuali nell’Italia di une volta, Prefazione di Natalia Aspesi, Saggiatore, 2011 ; Andrea Pini, Omocidi, Gli Omosessuali Uccisi in Italia, Stampa Alternativa, 2002.
On homosexuality : Ferruccio F. Castellano, ed., Fede Cristiana e omosessualita, Quaderni di Agape, 15 Giugno 1980, n°6.
On Italian Literature and the gay issue, see Francesco Gnerre, La biblioteca ritrovata. Percorsi di lettura gay nel mondo contemporaneo, Rogas, 2015 (this book is a compilation of Gnerre’s reviews about gay literature from several LGBT publications) ; see also by the same author : L’eroe negato. Omosessualità e letteratura nel Novecento italiano, Dalai Editore, Baldini & Castoldi, 2000. See also : Pier Vittorio Tondelli, Camera Separate ; Carlo Coccioli, Fabrizio Lupo, 1952.
On the Civil Union debates in 2007 and 2016 : see Monica Cirrina, L’Italia Che Non C’Era, Unioni civili : la dura battaglia per una legger storica, Fandango Libri, 2017 ; Gaia Pianigiani, “Unable to Marry Gay Couples, Some Italian Mayors Rebel”, New York Times, Oct. 23, 2014 ; Eric Jozsef, “Italie : Guerre de religions autour du DICO”, Libération, April 5, 2007 ; Jean-Jacques Bozonnet, “L’Éminence anti-pacs de Benoît XVI”, Le Monde, April, 1, 2007 ; Richard Heuzé & Hervé Yannou, “Polémique autour du pacs italien”, Le Figaro, Sept 16, 2005 ; Jim Yardley, “A European holdout on gay marriage”, New York Times, Jan 25, 2016 ; Philippe Ridet, “Le Pacs à l’italienne menace par les petits calculs électoraux”, Le Monde, Feb 23, 2016 ; Gaia Pianigiani, “Italian law recognizes civil unions, but not right to adopt”, New York Times, Feb 26, 2016 ; Philippe Ridet, “Monica Cirinna, égérie des homosexuels italiens”, Le Monde, Feb 1, 2016. I also use some information from my own article, F. Martel, “En Italie, le Renzi Express commence à connaître des rates”, Slate, Nov. 16, 2014
On Catholic Church Sex Scandals in Italy : Among many cases, see the following information: Don Giuseppe Savino from the Istituto Salesiano Don Bosco was accused by many young students of being a pedophile. Here’s a letter from one of them, and here’s another story from the ’60s. There’s also a little Facebook page where all the survivor of the abuse can talk to each other. Lots of stories may also be found in this forum ; Don Marino Genova from Portocannone (CB) is on trial for having sex with a young girl since she was 13 (Il Giornale) ; Giovanni Trotta, ex-priest and football coach, has been convicted for sexual abuse of an 11-year-old boy (he must stay in jail for 8 years) and he is on trial for sexual abuse of nine other boys aged between 12 and 13 (Foglia ; TGCOM24 ; la Gazzetta) ;
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in several chapter(s), among them, the chapter on the « CEI».

— J —



Jesuits

◊ See: Pope Francis.
– On the history of Jesuits, I read: Jean Lacouture, Jésuites, une multibiographie, 2 volumes : 1. Les Conquérants ; 2. Les revenants, Seuil, 1991. See also : Corrado Augias, I Segreti del Vaticano, Mondadori, 2010 (trans in French : “L’armée controversée du pape”, in Dans les Secrets du Vatican, De Pierre à François, L’incroyable histoire des papes, L’Express, Thema, Jan 2016).
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

John Paul II (Jean-Paul II)

◊ See: Pope John Paul II

John XXIII (Jean XXIII)

◊ See: Pope John XXIII

John the Apostle (L’âpotre Jean)

– I read Theodore Jennings, The Man Jesus Loved, The Pilgrim Press, 2009 (Jennings proposes an interesting gay reading of the Bible in the hope of respecting the integrity of these texts and making them more clear as well as more persuasive. Regarding John the Apostle, he concludes a kind of « socratic » relationship between the « man Jesus loved » and the Christ, in an ancient Greek mode).
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Jouhandeau (Marcel)

– French writer.
– See also : Angelo Rinaldi, « Jouhandeau : du bon usage de l’impudeur », L’Express, 12 August 1974.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Journet (Charles)

– Theologian.
– See the biography of Charles Journet by Guy Boissard, ed. Salvator, 2008.
– The Journet-Maritain correspondence is essential to understanding the « homophily » of the time ; see also : Jean-Luc Barré, Jacques et Raïssa Maritain, op. cit., pp. 233 et 295 ; see, also, his correspondence with Paul Claudel.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Judge (Mychal)

– US Priest and Chaplain
– Biography : Kelly Ann Lynch, He Said Yes : The Story of Father Mychal Judge, paulist Press, 2007. See also : Salvatore Sapienza, Mychal’s Prayer : Praying with Father Mychal Judge, Tregatti Press, 2011 and his profile in the New York Times. I have also used his Wikipedia page, which is pretty comprehensive and accurate, as well as his official website.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « La Théorie du genre» (french version) / « Gender Theory» (english version).

— K —


Karadima (Fernando)

– Chilean priest convicted of sexual abuse.
◊ See also: Chile ; Cardinal Errázuriz ; Cardinal Angelo Sodano ; Cardinal Ezzati ; Papal visit to Chile and Peru 2018.
– Considered the most powerful and influential priest in the Chilean church for more than three decades, until his sexual abuse crimes went public on TV in 2010. He began to build his power during the Chilean dictatorship thanks to his connections to the conservative economic, political, and military elites.
From the parish of El Bosque, in a well-off neighborhood of Santiago, he extended his influence over Angelo Sodano (when he was nuncio to Chile), officers of the Pinochet regime, and a body of more than 50 priests and four bishops who were trained by him through the organization he directed, the Pious Union of the Sacred Heart. His followers, just like his victims, mostly belonged to the upper class of Santiago. They called him “the saint,” or “the king.” Karadima also built a real estate empire.
– In November 2010, Karadima was declared guilty by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith of sexual abuse of minors, among other canonical crimes that took place between 1980 and 1995. He was sentenced to a life of prayer and penance, and was perpetually prohibited from the exercise of priestly ministry. In 2011, Chilean justice dropped the criminal case against Karadima because of the statute of limitations but called the accusations “truthful and reliable” and harshly condemned the priest.
Cardinal Francisco Javier Errázuriz, then archbishop of Santiago, received the first reports against Karadima in 2004. Only after a second accusation did Errazuriz open a canonical trial, but then suspended it for three more years “to wait for new evidence.” In 2010, a TV special report unveiled Karadima’s story and, shortly after, Errazuriz sent the case to the Vatican. A series of emails between Errázuriz and his successor, Cardinal Ricardo Ezzati, demonstrate their complicity and attempts to discredit one the plaintiffs.
Among the disciples of Karadima, there were four current Chilean bishops: the auxiliary bishop of Santiago Andrés Arteaga, Tomislav Koljatic of Linares, Horacio Valenzuela of Talca, and Juan Barros of Osorno. All of them are accused of covering up Karadima’s crimes. Felipe Bacarreza, bishop of Los Angeles, was also part of Karadima’s union, but then he walked away. When Pope Francis selected Barros to the Osorno diocese, hundred of Catholics protested the appointment. The complaints continued until Francis travelled to Chile in 2018, questioning his management of sexual abuse cases. Horacio Valenzuela and Juan Barros finally resigned in June 2018, resignation accepted immediately by Pope Francis.
Sodano: In the 1980s, when Angelo Sodano was nuncio to Chile, he became very close to Karadima. His network within the Church of Santiago allowed him to deliver inside information to Sodano about the conduct of priests, especially those who did not belong to the conservative wing. The encounters were recurring, to the point that the room where they met was known as “the Nuncio’s room.”
– Along with Sodano, several of Pinochet’s officers frequented the parish and belonged to Karadima’s inner circle. The highest ranking of them was the captain (retired) Sergio Rillón, one of Pinochet’s closest advisors and head of the Special Affairs Office in charge of the liaison between the government and the Church. One of the Karadima’s victims reported that both Rillón and Sodano frequented Karadima together and shared information. In 2010, Rillón wrote a letter in which he unconditionally supported Karadima: “I have been a parishioner of the church […] since 1976 and I have always had a great admiration and affection for the accused priest. […] I will not change this conviction whatever the outcome of the prosecution […].” A year before, he had written a letter against an allegedly pro-gay message from President Sebastián Piñera’s campaign: “[…] it is imperative to delve into the affective environment of two people of the same sex. It can reach sublime levels and, in general, it is known as friendship. […] The problem is converting this empathy with an affective content into a physical projection of carnal union […].”
Rodrigo Serrano Bombal was another visitor, known as “the little king” (Karadima was the “big” one), who worked with Rillón and at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Osvaldo Rivera, Pinochet’s former director of communications (the office in charge of censorship), attended Karadima’s parish for a while.
– The most important research on Karadima and the impact of the case on the Chilean Church are: María Olivia Monckeberg, Karadima: el señor de los infiernos, Santiago de Chile, Debate, 2011. By the same author, also read the article “Iglesia y política: el efecto Karadima”, Universidad de Chile, 2011 ; Juan Andrés Guzmán, Gustavo Villarrubia, and Mónica González, Los secretos del imperio Karadima, Santiago de Chile, Catalonia/UDP, 2011. Also see the series of articles by the same authors produced at the Centro de Investigación Periodística, CIPER ; Juan Carlos Cruz, El fin de la inocencia, Santiago de Chile, Debate, 2014 (testimony of one of Karadima’s victims).
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Sacré College» (french version) / « The Sacred college» (english version).

Kasper (Walter)

– German cardinal, Theologian.
◊ See : Synod on the family ; Saint-Gallen Group.
– Born in Germany in 1933, Walter Kasper is considered as a leading figure, among cardinals and theologians, for a progressive church. He is close to Pope Francis. He was in charge of the preliminary text on the family synod of 2014.
– Céline Hoyeau, “Divorcés remariés, les cinq conditions du cardinal Kasper”, La Croix, March 3, 2014.
– About the St. Gallen group (Walter Kasper, Karl Lehmann, Oskar Saier), see : Tom Kington, “Conservative opposition to Pope Francis spurs talk of a schism in the Catholic Church”, Los Angeles Times, April 17, 2017 : see also on the same St. Gallen group, the critical article by Anne Dolhein for Reinformation, here.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Le Synode » (french version) / « The Synod» (english version).

Koch (Kurt)

– Cardinal (Switzerland)
– Cardinal and bishop. Although he started out his career as a progressive and wrote about the beauty of friendship, he has hardened his position against homosexuality, observing no tolerance for homosexual people in positions of the Catholic Church.
– He published the book Lebensspiel der Freundschaft, Meditativer Brief an meiner Freund (Jeu d’amitié, Lettre méditative à mon ami), Kanisius Verlag 1982, an explicit letter of « love friendship » to a young man. The book has been strangely concealed from the cardinal’s bibliography.
– In 2010, the famous Swiss journalist Michael Meier, from the Tages-Anzeiger, the main Swiss-German newspaper, published a long profile on Cardinal Kurt Koch on the cover of the weekly supplement of Tages-Anzeiger, Das Magazin : this reportage was mainly on homosexuality, Swiss Cardinals and Kurt Koch.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « le Vice Pape » (french version) / « The Vice Pope» (english version).

Küng (Hans)

– Swiss theologian.
– Hans Küng was one of the most influential theologians of the second half of the 20th century. Initially close to Cardinal Ratzinger, he became an opponent of Pope John Paul II after he rejected papal infallibility. In 1979, he was stripped of his licence of teaching as a Roman Catholic theologian. During the 1980s and 1990s, his voice became one of the most critical against John Paul II and Cardinal Ratzinger. He criticized a “restoration” of a pre-Vatican II status quo and spoke about the “failure” of John Paul II. Later on, he criticized Benedict XVI as well, especially on inter-religious issues and the sexual abuse scandals.
– Hans Küng wrote dozens of books, among them, I recommend : Être chrétien, 1974, trans. in French, Le Seuil, 1978 ; Mon combat pour la liberté, Mémoires, vol. I, Ed. du Cerf, 2006 ; Une vérité contestée, Mémoires, vol. II, Ed. du Cerf, 2010.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.



— L —


Lacordaire (Henri)

– French priest, Re-founder of the Dominican Order
◊ See Charles de Montalembert
– French ecclesiastic, preacher, theologian, Henri Lacordaire (1802-1861) re-established the Dominican Order after the French Revolution.
– He was a close friend of the Catholic journalist and politician Charles de Montalembert (1810-1870). The recently published correspondence between Montalembert and Lacordaire by Le Cerf publisher, in 1989, confirms their “homophily” and their long-term love affair (read the explicit preface by José Cabanis). In his novel Volupté, Sainte Beuve had already described the homosexuality of Lacordaire under a pseudonym.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Ladaria Ferrer (Luis)

– Prefect of the Congregation of the Doctrine of the Faith.
– A bishop from Spain, Luis Ladaria Ferrer (born in 1944) was appointed as the Head of the Congregation of the Doctrine Faith in 2017 after his predecessor, Cardinal Müller was unexpectedly fired by pope Francis.
– According to the Italian newspaper La Repubblica, Msg Ladaria Ferrer is currently criticized for having been soft on the fight against sexual abuse (see : Emiliano Fittipaldi & Giuliano Foschini, “Non denunciò il prete pedofilo: quell’ombra nel passato del nuovo capo del Sant’Uffizio », La Repubblica, July 3, 2017. See also Le Monde. )
– Critics against Ladaria in Spain, see here.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Laghi (Pio)

– Nuncio & Cardinal
◊ See also : Argentina ; Angelo Sodano.
– Nuncio in Argentina and the US. Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for Catholic Education. He died in 2009. For an official and idyllic version of his life, see : Bruno Passarelli, Il cardinal e I desaparecidos, EDI, 2000 (only in Italian).
– Laghi developed a diplomatic career in Jerusalem and Palestine, Cyprus, Argentina, and the US. Pope John Paul II also appointed him prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education (1991-99).
– The most controversial aspect of his figure was his role as nuncio to Argentina during the military dictatorship. Different versions range from those who accuse Laghi of complicity in human rights violations and silencing the murder and disappearance of dissident priests and nuns, to those who say he made effective but quiet efforts to protect victims thanks to his regular contact with members of the regime. • During his period in Argentina, Laghi had to navigate a divided Church: on the one hand, there was a conservative sector (including much of the episcopal leadership) that acted in complicity with the regime, blessed it and, on many occasions, participated in its atrocities; in the middle, a progressive center; and finally, a combative wing, prone to Marxist theological and political currents that had to suffer the political violence and persecution. In this context, in the nunciature, Laghi received hundreds of requests from relatives of the victims. They asked the nuncio for intervention before the authorities. Testimonies reveal that, in some cases, he could successfully mediate. In other cases, relatives denounce his inaction in the face of horror. • In testimony before the National Commission on the Disappearance of Persons, a victim of torture and illegal detention said that he saw Laghi in a concentration camp; the ex-nuncio denied being there at the time, although he recognized a subsequent visit to the area. The testimony was removed from the final report because of the alleged pressure from the Church.
He is also accused of remaining silent about the disappearance or murder of about 85 Catholic priests, nuns, brothers, seminarists and lay leaders, and the forced exile of another hundred. In addition, he had a friendly relationship with members of the military junta and a favorable view of others, as was revealed by US State Department declassified documents. In media coverage at the time, Laghi appeared blessing the troops in charge of illegal repression (later, the Cardinal did not recognize his words and blamed the biased press of those years).
A group of Mothers of Plaza de Mayo petitioned the Italian government to prosecute Laghi based on 20 witnesses, including two bishops, ready to testify that the Cardinal silenced international protests, falsely stated to relatives that he knew nothing about the fate of victims, and expelled priests and nuns for their human rights activity. Laghi stated that the accusation was “defamatory and void of factual content.” • On the other hand, human rights activists – including bishops –, relatives of victims, and other relevant figures have defended Laghi’s role (see Emilio Mignone, Iglesia y dictadura, Buenos Aires, Colihue, 2006, also available online). Laghi carefully documented each of the cases that came to his hands, according to a Vatican declassification of files that tried to establish his concern about the human rights situation. The documents show that he continually reported to Rome. See also : Olga Wornat, Nuestra Santa Madre, Buenos Aires, Ediciones B, 2002. The Argentine journalist interviewed Laghi before his death ; and Bruno Passarelli, and Fernando Elenberg, Il Cardinale e i desaparecidos, Rome, Società Editrice Edi2000, 1999: an official version based on access to Laghi’s files and interviews with him.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Buenos Aires» (french and english version).

Law (Bernard)

– Cardinal from Boston
– Cardinal Bernard F. Law, whose 19-year tenure as head of the Archdiocese of Boston ended in his resignation after it was revealed he had failed to remove sexually abusive priests from the ministry, setting off a scandal that reached around the world, died at 86 in Dec. 2017 : see Boston Globe ; The Guardian ; Le Parisien (with AFP).
– On the polemic about “How cardinal disgraced in Boston child abuse scandal found a Vatican Heaven”, see The Guardian, Nov 6, 2015. See also on Cardinal Bernard Law : Laurie Goodstein, “Now Gathering in Rome, a Conclave of Fallible Cardinals”, New York Times, Feb 26, 2013. See also the movie Spotlight.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « La Théorie du Genre » (french version) / « Gender Theory» (english version).

Legionaries of Christ

◊ See : Marcial Maciel.

Leonardo da Vinci

◊ See also : Renaissance ; Michelangelo ; Caravaggio.
– Leonardo da Vinci, Notebooks, Oxford University Press, 1952 ; reed. 2008 by Oxford World’s Classics (see the mentions of Salaï, who fascinated Freud).
– On Da Vinci’s life, I use mainly Daniel Arasse, Léonard de Vinci, Hazan, 1997 ; Carlo Vecce, Léonard de Vinci, Flammarion, 2001 ; Sophie Chauveau, Léonard de Vinci, Gallimard/Folio Biographies, 2008 ; and, on the homosexual side, Dominique Fernandez, Amants d’Apollon, L’homosexualité dans la culture, Grasset, 2015 (especially : “Florence, capitale de la culture gay”, pp. 116-129). It is also important to read the famous book by Sigmund Freud, Un souvenir d’enfance de Léonard de Vinci, PUF, 2012 (the book is based on a translation mistake about the word “vautour”, but it is a smart lecture on homosexuality).
– On Gian Giacomo Caprotti, aka Salaï, see Sigmund Freud, Un souvenir d’enfance de Léonard de Vinci, op. cit. ; Dominique Fernandez, Amants d’Apollon, L’homosexualité dans la culture, op. cit., pp. 125-128 ; and Sophie Chauveau, Léonard de Vinci, op. cit., p. 82-83.
– On Francesco Melzi, see Sophie Chauveau, Léonard de Vinci, op. cit., p. 200-205.
– On homosexuality, see the key text by Sigmund Freud, Un souvenir d’enfance de Léonard de Vinci, PUF, 2012 ; see also : Sarah Contou-Terquem, Dictionnaire Freud, “Léonard de Vinci”, pp. 549-553).
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in several chapters of the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

LGBT movement in Italy

– On Marco Bisceglia and Arcigay, see the key book by Rocco Pezzano, Troppo amore ti ucciderà. Le tre vite di don Marco Bisceglia, Edigrafema, 2013 (the book retraces the life of Arcigay’s founder, from the Church to the gay activism).
– On the Italian LGBT movement, see, among other books : Gianni Rossi Barilli, Il movimento gay in Italia, Feltrinelli, 1999 ; Marzio Barbagli, Asher Colombo, Omosessuali moderni: gay e lesbiche in Italia, Il Mulino, 2007.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in several chapters the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Liberation Theology & Theology of liberation (Théologie de la Libération)

◊ See also: Fidel Castro ; Lopez-Trujillo ; Argentine
General readings on Liberation Theology : Rafael Luciani, Pope Francis and the Theology of the People, Orbis Books, 2017 (original in Spanish : El Papa Francisco y la Teología del Pueblo, Madrid, PPC, 2016). See also the interesting debate between Gustavo Gutierrez and Cardinal Müller : G. Gutiérrez, G.L. Müller, Dalla parte dei poveri. Teologia della liberazione, teologia della Chiesa, Edizioni Messaggero-EMI, Padoue, 2013 (trans. in English : On The Side of the Poor. The Theology of Liberation, Orbis Book, 2015 ; trans. in French : Aux côtés des pauvres : l’Eglise et la théologie de la libération, Bayard, 2014). See also, on this question, a rebuttal by Sandro Magister.
– On Gustavo Gutierrez, A Theology of Liberation, First edition in Lima, Peru, 1971 ; reed. English, Orbis Books, 1973.
On Leonardo Boff see: Ecclesiogenesis: The Base Communities Reinvent the Church (1986) ; Ecología: grito de la Tierra, grito de los pobres (2006) ; La dignidad de la Tierra. Ecología, mundialización, espiritualidad (2000).
On Frei Betto see : Fidel Castro and Frei Betto, Fidel & Religion, Conversations with Frei Betto on Marxism & Liberation Theology, Ocean Press, 2006
John-Paul II and Cardinal Ratzinger against Liberation Theology : see the official Catholic document : Instruction pour quelques aspects de la théologie de la libération by Joseph Ratzinger, 1984. See also : Carl Bernstein and Marco Politi, Sa Sainteté Jean-Paul II et l’histoire cachée de notre époque, Plon, 1996 ; Michael Löwy, “La vraie Eglise des pauvres”, Le Monde, March 30, 2013.
On Jorge Bergoglio and Liberation Theology : see Silvina Pérez et Lucetta Scaraffia, François, le pape américain, Introduction de Giovanni Maria Vian, Presses de la renaissance, 2017 (a propaganda version of the idyllic life of Pope Francis in Argentina, see the text “Bergoglio”, pp. 23-86). For a more serious account, see Marco Politi, Francesco tra i lupi, Gius, Laterza & Figli, 2014 ; trans. in French : François parmi les loups, ed. Philip Rey, 2015 ; French paperback (updated version) : François parmi les loups, Points, Seuil, 2015 (see : pp. 177-207). See also : Jon Lee Anderson, “The Pope of Latin America”, The New Yorker, July 17, 2015.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in several chapter(s) : « Buenos Aires», « Sacré Collège », « Les légionnaires du Christ » and « La Croisade contre les gays »  (french version) / « Buenos Aires », « Sacred College », « Legionnaries of Christ » and « The crusade against gays » (english version).

Lombardi (Federico)

– Spokeperson of Benedict XVI, Director of Radio Vatican.
– Caroline Pigozzi, “Padre Lombardi : L’homme qui parle à l’oreille des papes”, Paris Match, Oct 31, 2016.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in several chapters of the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

López Trujillo (Alfonso)

– Cardinal of Colombia.
◊ See also : Theology of Liberation ; Colombia ; Cardinal Baggio ; Cardinal Sodano.
– Cardinal de Medellín, López Trujillo was first identified around 1968 by the influential Italian Cardinal Sebastiano Baggio, head of Congregation for Bishops.
– See also the official pro-Trujillo book : Alfonso López Trujillo, Testimonianze : conversazioni con José Luis Gutiérrez García, Rinnovamento nello Spirito Santo, Rome, 2000.
– An excellent book has been written by the journalist Hernando Salazar Palacio, La Guerra secreta del cardinal Lopez Trujillo, publisher: Temas de Hoy, 1996 (in Spanish). In this book, Hernando Salazar Palacio mentions Lopez Trujillo’s war against Liberation Theology.
– See also : Jon Lee Anderson, “The Afterlife of Pablo Escobar”, New Yorker, March 5, 2018 ; Edgar González Ruiz, Cruces y sombras: perfiles del conservadurismo en América Latina, San José, CR [Asociación Colectiva por el Derecho a Decidir], 2006.
– Gustavo Salazar Pineda has published a key book : Gustavo Salazar Pineda, El Confidente de la Mafia se Confiesa, 2006. In this book, the lawyer Gustavo Salazar Pineda, who defended the Colombian mafia, confirms that Lopez Trujillo was linked with the drug traffickers and got money from them (see also this source and this one). Another source suggests a link between Cardinal López Trujillo and the narcos : “López Trujillo era un cardenal muy influyente en el Vaticano”, El Espectador, April 20, 2008. See also the reportage by María Jimena Dunzán in El Tiempo (April 2005, she mentions in her article the “good relations” between the cardinal and Pablo Escobar). See The Economist, May 1st, 2008 :
– On his declaration against use of condoms for AIDS, in Africa see the BBC.
– Peter Stanford : “Obituary: Cardinal Alfonso López Trujillo”, The Guardian.
– See also : Nelson Fredy Padilla – El cardenal duerme sentado, El Espectador ; John L. Allen JR., National Catholic Reporter, June 2, 2000 ; El verdedero malhechor –  Hector Abad Facciolince (here) ; Interview by reporter Ms Duzan with Lopez Trujillo ; article on Duzan versus Lopez ; Trujillo against Duzan in El Tiempo ; priests in favor of Lopez Trujillo, in El Tiempo ; a Book against Lopez Trujillo ; Vatican condemns Spain gay bill – Lopez Trujillo Speech (BBC) ; On family by Vatican ; A Spanish interview with Lopez Trujillo (in Spanish) ; Interview on Lopez Trujillo ; Rests of Lopez left Roma for Medellin, in El Colombiano ;
– See also the novel by Gustavo Álvarez Gardeazábal, La Misa ha terminado : in this explicit novel « à clés » Álvarez Gardeazábal describes the scandalous sexual life of López Trujillo ; in Spanish, not translated. (The cover of the book is a San Sebastian in front of the Vatican).
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « La Croisade contre les gays » (french version) / « The Crusade against gays » (english version).

Lot (or Loth)

– Patriarch or Prophet, key figure of the Bible.
◊ See also: Sodom ; Orient Travels ; and Dead Sea (The).
– On the figure of Lot, see André-Marie Gerard, Dictionnaire de la Bible, Robert Laffont, 1989 (see Loth, pp. 802-803) ; Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman also mention Lot in several paragraphs in The Bible Unearthed, Simon & Schuster, 2001 ; trad. in French : La Bible dévoilée, Bayard, 2002.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel. See the unpublished chapter about the history of the city of Sodom, online : http://www.sodoma.fr

Lubac (Henri de)

– A Jesuit, a cardinal and a key French theologian.
– I recommend de Lubac’s most famous book : Le Drame de l’humanisme athée, a fine analysis on the rationalism, empiricism, and positivism of the 19th century. De Lubac offers a smart reading of Kierkegaard and Dostoïevski to criticize Marx and Nietzsche.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

— M —

Macchi (Pasquale)

– Personal assistant of pope Paul VI.
– See an official and laudatory biography : A. Caprioli, L. Vaccaro, ed., Mons. Pasquale Macchi, Per una biographia spirituale, Morcelliana, 2017 (in Italian) ; and
the short book by Angelo Montonati, Monsignor Pasquale Macchi, Nel solco luminoso di Paolo VI, Elledici, 2013 (in Italian).
– The personal assistant of Paul VI (he began as Montini’s assistant in 1954 and stayed assistant to the Pope until his death in 1978), has been a key figure on the arts during the pontificate ; he was the main contact of artists and played an important role for the creation of the modern art collection in the Vatican museums.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « L’amour d’amitié » (french version) / « Love friendship» (english version).

Maciel (Marcial)

– Founder of The Legion of Christ in Mexico.
◊ See : Mexico ; Cardinal Angelo Sodano ; Cardinal Stanislaw Dziwisz.
– Founder of The Legion of Christ (Legión de Cristo). He sexually abused at least 20 seminarists but was not punished by the Catholic Church. He spent only 20 months separated from the Church, having stood in no trial, at the end of his life.
On Marcial Maciel’s life and crimes : I mainly use two books: the first one by Franca Giansoldati, Il Demonio in Vaticano I Legionari di Cristo e Il caso Maciel, Edizioni Piemme Spa, 2014, trans. in French : L’Affaire Maciel, Albin Michel, 2015 (in this influential book, Giansoldati reveals the exchange of money between Marcial Maciel and the Vatican) ; the second : Carmen Aristegui, Marcial Maciel, Historia de un Criminal, Deboolsillo (with multiple interviews, transcripts, and original documents by the famous Mexican journalist Carmen Aristegui ; in Spanish).
– I also use three key investigative books: one by Carl Bernstein and Marco Politi, Sa Sainteté Jean-Paul II et l’histoire cachée de notre époque, Plon, 1996 ; the second by Jason Berry and Gerald Renner, Vows of Silence. The Abuse of Power in the Papacy of John Paul II, Free Press, 2004 (see also Jason Berry’s anti-Pope John Paul II article : “The Shame of John Paul II : How the Sex Abuse Scandal Stained His Papacy”, The Nation, April 27, 2011 ; the third : Fernando M. González, Marcial Maciel. Los Legionarios de Cristo : testimonies y docuentos inéditos, ed. Tiempo.
– Other articles and sources : Jason Berry, “Father Marcial Maciel and the Popes he stained”, Newsweek, Nov 3, 2013. See also : an opinionated article by Edward Pentin, “The Allegations Against Cardinal Sodano”, Catholic World Report, May 4, 2011.
– See also : Nelly Ramírez Mota Velasco, El Reino de Marcial Maciel : la vida oculta de la Legión y el Regnum Christi, Planeta Mexicana, 2011 ; Xavier Léger, Moi, ancien legionnaire du Christ : sept ans dans une secte au coeur de l’église, Flammarion, 2013.
– On the books by Marcial Maciel, see Ma vie, c’est le Christ, written with Jesús Colina, 2003 (see the glorious preface by Tarcisio Bertone ; the journalist from Zenit agency later recognized that he had been manipulated by Maciel).
– See also : New York Times 1 ; New York Times 2 ; Jo Tuckman, “The Rev. Marcial Maciel”, The Guardian, April 29, 2008.
On Marcial Maciel’s Vatican protectors in Mexico and within the Vatican : see NCROnline 1 ; NCROnline 2 ; AmericaMagazine. See also : Jason Berry, “Francis Must Fix-Up Cover-Up culture that John-Paul II enabled”, NCROnline.org, Feb 21, 2019.
– The well-known letter of Juan José Vaca written in 1976 : here the original in Spanish and here in a French translation (the website is not an orthodox one, but the translation seems correct).
– The film Secrets of the Vatican by Anthony Thomas, Frontline, PBS, 2014 retraces the Marcial Maciel scandal.
– Marcial Maciel, Stanislaw Dziwisz and Poland : see Miroslaw Wlekły, “Legion Molestowanych”, Gazeta Wyborcza : Here are some translated excerpts: “November 11, 2002. José Barba sends a letter to Stanisław Dziwisz, secretary of John Paul II on behalf of himself and other legionnaires. In 12 points written in Polish are the sins of Maciel.” […] “Flora Garza Barragán (daughter of Flory Barragán de Garzy, Legion’s long-time sponsor): – My mother told me that he asked her for millions of dollars. On a special radio with which John Paul II could secretly communicate with Lech Wałęsa. Mum gave two million dollars for it (…). When we came to Rome, we always had a party in honor of my mom (…). When her money ran out, he broke off contact with her.” […] Alberto Athié: At this time, John Paul II appoints Maciel as an expert of the World Synod of Bishops in the Vatican, and I try to continue. The house where we are sitting, I bought from the mother of Bishop Carlos Talavera. He was a model for me, a friend of my father and father when my father died. He supported me when I decided to quit my medical studies and become a priest. Wonderful man. Talavera promises me that he will give my letter to Joseph Ratzinger, then prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. He returned from the Vatican and says: « Ratzinger read your letter with me and asked if I know you well, I assured him that you are reliable and all this is true. » And Ratzinger said, « I’m sorry, but we can not move this matter because Maciel is close to the pope and very useful for the Church.  »
– On the Legion of Christ since the fall of Marcial Maciel : revelations about tax havens, see this important research in Chile (source). See also Le Monde.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Les Légionnaires du Christ » (french version) / « The Legionnaries of Christ» (english version).

Magee (John)

– Assistant to Pope John Paul I
◊ See also: John Paul I ; Ireland.
– On the figure of Pope John Paul I’s personal assistant, Mgr John Magee, who was critized for his conduct and who was later harshly critized in numerous sexual abuse cases see : Henry McDonald, “Irish report on child sex abuse berates Vatican”, The Guardian, July 13, 2011 (see also : The Guardian). For the official report of the Cloyne Diocese Report by the National Board for Safeguarding Children in the Catholic Church in Ireland, which mentions John Magee’s singularity on § 26.4, p. 320 (here).
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « L’amour d’amitié» (french version) / « Love Friendship» (english version).

Mahony (Roger)

– American cardinal
– See Marco Politi, Francesco tra i lupi, Gius, Laterza & Figli, 2014 ; trans. in French : François parmi les loups, ed. Philip Rey, 2015 ; French paperback (updated version) : François parmi les loups, Points, Seuil, 2015 (see : p. 63-64). See also on Cardinal Mahony : Laurie Goodstein, “Now Gathering in Rome, a Conclave of Fallible Cardinals”, New York Times, Feb 26, 2013.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « La Théorie du genre» (french version) / « Gender Theory» (english version).

Mamberti (Dominique)

– French Cardinal
◊ Pope Benedict XVI.
– Dominique Mamberti has been “minister” of Foreign affairs of the Holy See under Pope Benedict XVI. He reported to Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone.
– See, among many documents, two speeches by Mgr Mamberti at the UN General Assembly in 2012 (here) and in 2013 (here). And one of the rare interviews of Mamberti by French Nicolas Diat (here). By the same author, see a profile of Mamberti for Le Figaro.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in several chapters in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Mangiacapra (Francesco)

Italian escort living in Naples
◊ See also : Don Euro (see Morini, Gianluca)
– This escort played a key role in the case of the former priest Gianluca Morini. In 2017, he published the book Il Numero Uno. Confessioni di un Marchettaro, detailing his life as an escort. In 2018, he made a dossier about all the gay priests he knew, detailing their sexual preferences and passions, but also featuring screenshots of all the conversation they had with escorts on Grindr, Facebook, Whatsapp, etc.
The dossier, still unavailable to the public, has been sent to the archbishop of Naples, Cardinal Crescenzio Sepe (see Gay.It ; here, here, here, here, here and here ; see also on Facebook here.) See also Church Militant, Slate and La Croix. See also on the “Don Euro” scandal, this article.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Roma Termini» (french & english version).

Mann (Thomas & Klaus)

– On the works and life of Thomas Mann and especially Mort à Venise et Tonio Kröger : I use Dominique Fernandez, Amants d’Apollon, L’homosexualité dans la culture, Grasset, 2015 (see chapter “Sous l’oeil de la police, à propos de Tonio Kröger de Thomas Mann”, where the writer concludes that Mann was homosexual).
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Maradiaga (Oscar Andres Rodriguez)

– Cardinal from Honduras
– About the “C9”, Pope Francis’ council of cardinals : Cécile Chambraud, “Le Voeur pieux de la réforme du Vatican”, Le Monde, Dec 26, 2017.
– On the homosexual ambiance in Cardinal Maradiaga’s entourage: National Catholic Register 1 ; National Catholic Register 2 ; National Catholic Register 3 ; Riposte Catholique ; Christian Post (and Maradiaga answer for Catholic News Agency).
– On Monseigneur Juan José Pineda, auxiliary bishop of Tegucigalpa, capital of Honduras, see : “Vatican: le pape accepte la démission d’un évêque hondurien controversé”, BFM, July 20, 2018. (See also here).
– Sexual abuse cover up : Cardinal Maradiaga was criticized in the Vigano Memo in August 2018 (here the original in Italian ; in English ; in French) ; he is also mentioned on the “dirty dozen” list edited by the Survivors’ Network of those Abused by Priests (SNAP) (source here).
– A new book was published in spanish attacking the morals of Cardinal Maradiaga : National Catholic Register, April 6 2019.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Le Synode » (french version) / « The Synod » (english version).

Marcel (Gabriel)

– French catholic philosopher
– Gabriel Marcel (1889-1973) was an influential Christian philosopher and played an important role at the NRF (but his relations with André Gide were complicated). Jacques Maritain tried to convert him ; he read Saint Thomas Aquinas and was religious, sometimes quite esoteric, on his own, but finally ended up becoming a Catholic figure. (See André Gide, Journal, vol. 2, p. 203).
– Gabriel Marcel participated in a public conference on homosexuality at Paris’ Cité Universitaire (probably in 1958) with Daniel Guérin and Dr Eck. Marcel had bad relations with André Baudry and asked that he not be invited.
– In his book Daniel Guérin revealed Marcel’s homosexuality (source).
– Stéphane Giocanti, in his biography of Pierre Boutang, published by Flammarion, 2016, reveals that Gabriel Marcel had himself declared that he was “un homosexuel réfréné”.
– Gabriel Marcel is one of the rare European names mentioned in Amoris Laetitia.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Le Synode » (french version) / « The Synod» (english version).

Marcinkus (Paul C.)

– American archbishop, Head of the Vatican bank.
– Paul C. Marcinkus, an American archbishop, is one of the most controversial figures in the history of the Vatican. Associated with the Vatican bank for more than 20 years, he was its president from 1971 to 1989, under Pope Paul VI (for whom he was initially a translator and a bodyguard) through Pope John Paul II. Paul VI, allegedly, protected him. According to several authors and investigators, he may have been at the origin of large money scandals in the bank, and may have played a role in the assassination of Italian financier Roberto Calvi and even in the assassination of Pope John Paul I – but none of these accusations have ever been proven.
– On Paul Marcinkus, I mainly use the book by Fabio Marchese Ragona, Il Caso Marcinkus, Chiarelettere, November 2018 (on his relationship to Paul VI and Pasquale Macchi, see pp. 16-20 ; on his relation to Giulio Andreotti, see p. 36-59 ; on his bad relationship with Albino Luciani/John Paul I, see pp. 102-117 ; on the funding of Solidarnosc, see pp. 118-130 ; on his fall and death, see p. 131-150). See also : David Yallop, In God’s name, 1986 ; trans. in French Au nom de Dieu, Christian Bourgois, 1986 (this book has been a best-seller, selling millions of copies) ; David Yallop, The Power and the Glory, Inside the Dark Heart of John Paul II’s Vatican, Carroll & Graf Publishers, 2007 ; Bernard Lecomte, Les Secrets du Vatican, Perrin, 2009 ; reed. Tempus, 2011 (see pp. 308-324) ; See also “Dans les coulisses du Vatican”, L’Express, Special Issue, Jan./March 2016 (“Les errements des banquiers de Dieu”, pp. 152-159). These accusations have been denied by historian John Cornwell in A Thief in the Night, Death of Pope John Paul I, 1989 ; trans. in French, Comme un voleur dans la nuit, Robert Laffont, 1989. See also : Gianluigi Nuzzi, Vatican SA, Les archives secretes du Vatican, Hugo & C, 2011.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « L’amour d’amitié», « Sacré college » & « Les légionnaires du Christ » (french version) / « Loving Friendship», « Sacred College » & « Legionnaires of Christ » (english version).

Maritain (Jacques)

Theologian, Writer.
– Among the books by Jacques Maritain, I’ve mainly used : Art et scolastique, 1920 ; Antimoderne, 1922 ; Trois réformateurs : Luther, Descartes, Rousseau, avec six portraits, 1925 ; Réponse à Jean Cocteau, 1926 ; Une opinion sur Charles Maurras et le devoir des catholiques, 1926 ; Pourquoi Rome a parlé (coll.), 1927 ; Religion et culture, 1930 ; Humanisme intégral. Problèmes temporels et spirituels d’une nouvelle chrétienté, 1936 ; Le paysan de la Garonne. Un vieux laïc s’interroge à propos du temps présent, 1966
– The main source on Maritain’s life is the biography by Jean-Luc Barré, Jacques et Raïssa Maritain, Fayard, 2009, reed. Tempus/Perrin, 2012. See also : Yves Floucat, Jacques Maritain ou la fidélité à l’éternel, FAC-Editions, 1996.
– On Ernest Psichari, his homosexuality, and his relation with Maritain, see : Jacques Maritain, Antimoderne (see chapter V on “Ernest Psichari, pp. 205-247) ;
Frédérique Neau-Dufour, Ernest Psichari : l’ordre et l’errance, édition du Cerf ; see also Théodore Monod, Maxence au désert. Un voyage en Mauritanie, Actes Sud/Babel, 2001 (who describes Psichari as a Wildean homosexual) ; and André Gide who reveals the homosexuality of Psichari in Nouvelle Revue Française, September 1st, 1932.
– On Maritain/Gide, see : André Gide, Journal 1887-1925, Pléiade, Gallimard, 1996, tome I, p. 1233-1237.
– On Maritain/Green see : Julien Green, Jacques Maritain, Une Grande amitié. Correspondance, 1926-1972, Idées/Gallimard, 1982 and Yves Floucat, Julien Green et Jacques Maritain, L’amour du vrai et la fidélité du coeur, Pierre Téqui ed., 1997.
– On Maritain and Paul VI, see : Philippe Chenaux, Paul VI and Maritain, Les rapports du montinianisme et du maritanisme, Studium, 1994.
– Paul VI translated the book by Maritain, Trois Réformateurs : Luther, Descartes, Rousseau, Plon, 1925. According to the biography of Paul VI by Yves Chiron, Mgr Montini read this book in 1926 during a stay in Strasbourg. He wrote to Maritain in December 1926 to ask him permission to translate the book in Italian. The book was published in 1928 by Morcelliana. Mgr Montini wrote a long preface of the book (only signed “g.b.m”) in which he defends Maritain and praises a neo-Thomist theory ; he also criticized fascism (without naming it) for breaking ties with Christian humanism and for being a selfish doctrine (see Yves Chiron, Paul VI, Le Pape Ecartelé, Perrin, 1993, pp. 58-59).
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Le Code Maritain » (french version) / « Maritain’s code » (english version).

Martin (James)

– A Pro-LGBT US Jesuit.
– US Priest and writer. See his book : Building a Bridge (The preface is written by the archbishop of Bologna, Matteo Zuppi, who speaks about “a new attitude to find together with our LGBT brothers and sisters”)
– See the interview of Father James Martin, in Il Giornale : he says the biggest mistake the Church committed or will commit against the LGBT community: “treat them like leprous people; No other group of Catholics has been treated this way by the Church”. Will the Church ever recognize some kind of value in homosexual relationships? “We need to listen to the European bishops who already opened to that, even when the Church doesn’t approve of same-sex marriage”. “Saying that I know gay priests who are celibate, or even celibate members of religious orders, is not an opinion. It’s a fact. They exist and even have important positions in the Church. If we believe that a percentage of the humanity is gay or lesbian, it’s logical to say that even a few saints were gay or lesbian. Are we saying that God can’t make a a gay person a saint?” (See also this point of view in the New York Times).
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Martino (Renato Raffaele)

– Cardinal from Italy, former Nuncio in the UN
– Official reaction of the Dignitatis Humanae Institute (Cardinal Burke and Benjamin Harnwell) to Mgr Viganò’s accusation of Cardinal Martino’s homosexuality (here).
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Les diplomates du pape » (french version) / « The pope’s diplomacy » (english version).

Martini (Carlo Maria)

– Cardinal, Milan.
– A former Archbishop of Milan, Martini may be considered one of the most ‘gay friendly’ figures in the Italian Church; one of the most marginalized too, under John Paul II. A liberal Jesuit, born in Turin, he had written several open works about social questions, and given a much-noticed interview with the former mayor of Rome in which heshowed himself to be favourable to homosexuals. In other texts, he defended the idea of a ‘Vatican III’ which would undertake deep reform of the Church with regard to questions of sexual morality, and he was open to a debate around homosexual unions, but without encouraging them. He defended the use of condoms under certain circumstances, in explicit disagreement with the thoughts of Benedict XVI, whom he opposed head-on. Finally, he wrote a regular column in the newspaper Corriere della Sera in which he was quite forthright about opening up the debate concerning women priests or the ordination of married men: the famous viri probati.
– Cardinal Carlo Maria Martini on civil unions (Espresso).
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « La CEI» (french version) / « CEI » (english version).

Mauriac (François)

French Writer, Nobel Prize.
– I mainly use the biography by Jean-Luc Barré, François Mauriac, Biographie Intime, Fayard, 2015 (Mauriac’s homosexuality is well-documented in this book).
– I also read with pleasure his Vie de Jésus, Flammarion, 1936.
– See also : Jacques Nerson, “Mauriac et les garcons”, BibliObs.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Le Code Maritain » (french version) / « Maritain’s code» (english version).

McCarrick (Theodore)

– US cardinal.
◊ See: Viganò ; US.
– Elisabetta Povoledo, Sharon Otterman, “Cardinal Theodore McCarrick Resigns Amid Sexual Abuse Scandal”, New York Times, July 28, 2018.
– Robert Mickens, “The Catholic Church is enabling the sex abuse crisis by forcing gay priests to stay in the closet”, Washington Post, July 23, 2018.
– Heidi Schlumpf, “Retired Washington cardinal out of ministry after credible abuse allegation », National Catholic Reporter, June 20, 2018.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « La Théorie du genre » (french version) / « Gender Theory » (english version).

McNeill (John)

– A Jesuit Theologian Specialist in Queer Theology
– John McNeill (1925-2015), a former Jesuit from the US, was a very influential theologian on the “gay priest movement”. As a psychotherapist and a theologian, he wrote seminal books that had a large impact in the LGBT priest community. See here and the influential film.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Dissidents » (french and english version).

Medina Estévez (Jorge)

– Cardinal Prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments under Pope John Paul II.
◊ See also : Chile ; Karadima, Fernando; Papal visit to Chile and Peru; Sexual abuse in the Chilean church.
– Born in Santiago (Chile), Medina was professor and dean of the Faculty of Theology of the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile. After Pinochet’s coup in 1973, the military regime intervened at the university and designated an army officer as rector. Given that the regime maintained a strong dispute with Cardinal Silva Henríquez, grand chancellor of the Catholic University for his title of Archbishop of Santiago, the military authorities requested that the Holy See replace Silva. Medina – much closer to Pinochet’s dictatorship ideas – was appointed pro-grand chancellor of the university, a previously nonexistent position. (Ascanio Cavallo, Manuel Salazar, and Oscar Sepúlveda, La historia oculta del regimen militar, Santiago de Chile, Uqbar, 2008).
– In 1984, Medina was appointed Auxiliary Bishop of Rancagua and consecrated in Rome by Pope John Paul II. Three years later, he was promoted to ordinary of the diocese. His designation was part of the Chilean episcopate’s renewal towards a more conservative profile led by Angelo Sodano. At that time, Sodano was nuncio to Chile and backed the nomination of Medina against the wishes of the local episcopal conference. (Mary Mooney, “Challenge to authority: Catholic laity in Chile and the United States 1966 – 1987”, a thesis submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research, McGill University, 1994). Under the leadership of the Colombian Archbishop Alfonso López Trujillo, Medina joined the group of conservative prelates who met in Los Andes (Chile) in 1985, to denounce liberation theology and discuss the Instruction Libertatis Nuntius. The group signed the document known as “Declaración de Los Andes” (Enrique Correa, and José Antonio Viera-Gallo, Iglesia y dictadura, Santiago de Chile, CESOC, 1986). • In 1992, John Paul II designated Medina secretary general for the Santo Domingo session of the Latin American Episcopal Conference (Celam), where he worked alongside Sodano to dictate the meeting’s final document and discard the position of the dissident bishops.
– After a short period as Bishop of Valparaíso, Medina moved to the Roman Curia. Pope John Paul II designated Medina prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship in 1998 and elevated him to Cardinal. Medina had a decisive role in banning Latin American liturgical initiatives that promoted inculturation in indigenous populations. He also demanded sweeping changes in the International Commission on English in the Liturgy, a body in charge of translating liturgical texts into English. He complained about the use of “inclusive language,” or gender-neutral terms, regarding that policy as unacceptably influenced by feminist thought. He retired in 2002 at the age of 75. After the 2005 papal conclave, as cardinal protodeacon, he announced to the world the election of Pope Benedict XVI.
Pinochet’s dictatorship. Medina was one of the most visible faces of the pro-Pinochet sector of the Chilean episcopate. His famous quote “the fact that democracy exists does not automatically mean that God would want it to be put into practice”, pronounced a few months after the end of the dictatorship, was the first of a series of public defenses of Pinochet once the country had reestablished democracy. When Pinochet was arrested in London and indicted for human rights violations by Spanish judge Baltasar Garzón in 1998, Medina actively participated in a series of meetings at the Opus Dei headquarters in Rome to design the Vatican’s strategy to support to the dictator’s release. Sodano had a key role in the Holy See’s intervention to pressure the British government to release the dictator for “humanitarian reasons.” • His efforts to free Pinochet were not the last in favor of the ruler. In 2008, Medina celebrated a mass to commemorate the second anniversary of Pinochet’s death. In his homily, he said that “our country needs forgiveness” and “instead of forgiveness, many people ask for ‘justice’, a word that is hiding an uglier one – and they don’t dare to pronounce it – which is ‘revenge.’” He used the same occasion to censor a Madonna concert, “that woman who provokes with an incredible impudence a crazy enthusiasm, an enthusiasm of lust.” Medina also visited Pinochet’s widow when she was arrested on corruption charges.
Sexual abuse. Regarding the case of the prominent Chilean priest Fernando Karadima, declared guilty of sexual abuse of minors by the Vatican, he described the cleric’s actions as simple “homosexual acts” and questioned the victims: “A 17-year-old youngster knows what he is doing.” Then he added: “There has been some exaggeration in the publicity given to these events.” Medina was a regular visitor to Karadima’s parish in Santiago, as well as Sodano (Juan Andrés Guzmán, Gustavo Villarrubia, and Mónica González, Los secretos del imperio Karadima, Santiago de Chile, UDP, 2011). When Medina was Bishop of Valparaíso, one of the closest disciples to Karadima, Juan Barros, was appointed auxiliary bishop of the diocese. Twenty-five years later, Barros would be questioned for covering up Karadima’s crimes, would tarnish Pope Francis’ visit to Chile, and shake the Chilean episcopate.
Homosexuality: Medina is well-known for his harsh position against homosexuality. In relation to gay marriage, he said in 2010: “Homosexual tendency is a defect, like a person without an eye or a foot.” And supported the “cure of homosexuality” based on cases of “correction” he claimed to know of. Two years later, Medina compared homosexuals with “a child born without an arm.”
In 2013, Medina sent a letter to the Senate in relation to the debate of same-sex civil unions (approved in 2015). In the missive, he expressed that homosexual acts are “aberrant” and linked “violence and crimes related to immoral sexual behaviors” with this “disorder” and its “negative influence on human coexistence.”
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Sacré College » (french version) / « Sacred College» (english version).

Mexico

◊ On Marcial Maciel, see the entry: Maciel ; On Cardinal Roberto Rivera, see the entry: Rivera. On Cardinal Juan Sandova Iñiguez, see: Sandova.
Homosexuality and the Church in Mexico : During the debate on gay marriage, and given the opposition of the Church, a pro-LGBT organization made public the list of 38 religious people in Mexico who are homosexuals and promised a longer list : Blanca Juárez, « Revelan nombres de jerarcas catolicos con preferencia homosexual », La Jordana, Sept. 22, 2016 ; see also Emiliano Ruiz Parra, Ovejas negras, rebeldes de la Iglesia mexicana del siglo XXI, Océano, 2012.
Homosexuality in Mexican Literature. Homosexuality is represented in mainstream Mexican literature from the 1960s onwards. El vampiro de la Colonia Roma by Luis Zapata Quiroz is a famous example. The author of this tale is particularly identified with gay literature. Another interesting example is Carlos Monsiváis, because he is, other than being a gay writer, a very famous one (“Cada vez que Monsiváis escribe el idioma español sale del clóset
– A story of gay culture in Mexico. It is also an anthology of literary texts that deal with homosexuality by some renowned Mexican authors. Writer Elena Poniatowska praises the book in this article.
– Carlos Fuentes : short novel with a homosexual special character A la víbora de la mar
– Gutiérrez Farias’s Affair : Pedro Gutiérrez Farias, a Mexican priest nicknamed « papi », created a foster home for children called « Ciudad de los Niños de Salamanca » in the northern state of Guanajuato, Mexico over 40 years ago. He is accused of having systematically abused minors in the foster home during that time. The story reached media attention thanks to the testimony of two minors who lived in the foster home. Both of them said they were raped: one of them came back from the institute with an STD, the other one had a child. The story,  published in the newspaper La Jornadaspoke of sexual abuse and human trafficking with the intention of illegal adoption. Human rights activists are pushing for an official inquiry, stressing that the priest has been protected all this time by a network encompassing state authorities and Church members. The NIMA (Center for the promotion of the human rights of boys, girls, and adolescents) created a report that documents these abuses and is being filed to local authorities to spur an investigation. One of the main accusations involves 134 children who were logged into the civil registry as adopted sons and daughters of the Mexican priest. 
– On Carlos Aguiar Retes (appointed by Pope Francis), the most powerful archbishop in Mexico nowadays, see this reportage on his political view : Emiliano Ruiz Parra, « Carlos Aguiar Retes et les élections de 2018 », Gatopardo, Dec 7, 2017. See also articles about the opposition between Carlos Aguiar Retes, the new archbishop of Mexico (appointed by Pope Francis) and Roberto Rivera (close to Sodano), a clear break-up : W Radio ; Nación ; Grupo Formula ; Animal Politico ; Milenio ; Vanguardia ; Proceso ; see also here.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Les Légionnaires du Christ » (french version) / « Legionnaries of Christ » (english version).

Michelangelo – Michel-Ange

◊ See also : Renaissance ; Leonardo da Vinci ; Caravaggio.
– On Michelangelo, I use Michel-Ange, Sonnets, edition by Pierre Leyris, Poésies/Gallimard (the foreword by Leyris develops the same-sex attraction of Michelangelo).
– On Michelangelo’s life, I mainly use Dominique Fernandez, Amants d’Apollon, L’homosexualité dans la culture, Grasset, 2015 (especially two texts : “Florence, capitale de la culture gay”, pp. 116-129 ; and “Double Italie”, pp. 130-143). I have also read: Gilles Néret, Michelangelo, Taschen, 2013 (see especially pp. 65-80) and Enrica Crispino, Michel-Ange, Gründ, 2010.
– I’m not convinced by the very unsatisfactory chapter on Michelangelo by Elie Faure, Histoire de l’art, 2010 (multiple editions) ; I’m more interested by the pages on Michelangelo in E. H. Gombrich, The Story of Art, 1950, Phaïdon, trans. Gallimard (multiple editions, see p. 312 of the French edition for his remark about statues that appears with their identity).
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in several chapters of the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Middle East (Arab World)

◊ See also : Orient Travels.
– On the general situation of the Middle East, I use : Roy, L’Islam mondialisé, Seuil, 2002, and Gilles Kepel, Jihad, Gallimard, 2000 ; Fitna, Guerre au cœur de l’islam, Gallimard, 2004 and Terreur et Martyre, Relever le défi de la civilisation, Flammarion, 2008.
– On the gay issue in the Arab world, I use : Malek Chebel, L’esprit du sérail, Mythes et pratiques sexuels au Maghreb, Payot, 1988 ; Brian Whitaker, Unspeakable Love: Gay and Lesbian Life in the Middle East, University of California Press, Berkeley, 2006, 264 p. (trans. in French : Parias : gays et lesbiens dans le monde arabe, éd. Demopolis, 2008, 235 p) ; Joseph A. Massad, Desiring Arabs, University of Chicago Press, 2007 (see the controversial text : « Re-orienting Desire : The Gay International and the Arab world »). On honor crimes, see Rana Husseini, Murder in the name of honor, The True story of one woman’s heroic fight against an unbelievable crime, Oneworld publications, 2009, 248 p. On gay assassinations in Iraq, see : Human Rights Watch, They Want us Exterminated, Murder, Torture, Sexual Orientation and Gender in Iraq, 67 p., New York, 2009 (report by Scott Long). On the Queen Boat scandal, see : Nicola Pratt, « The Queen Boat case in Egypt : sexuality, national security and state sovereignty », Review of International Studies, 2007. On gay life in Egypt and Jordan, the biography of the artist Ali Jabri is interesting : Amal Ghandour, About this Man Called Ali : The Purple Life of an Arab artist, London, Eland, 2009.
– On Iran, which is a Muslim country but not an Arab one, see : Malise Ruthven, « Divided Iran on the Eve », The New York Review of Books, July 2 2009 ; Roger Cohen, « Iran : The Tragedy & the Future », New York Review of Books, August 13 2009 ; Elaine Sciolino, Persian Mirrors, The Elusive face of Iran, Free Press, 2000. On Iranian society, see : Farhad Khosrokhavar, Avoir vingt ans au pays des ayatollahs, Robert Laffont, 2009 (see especially the chapter « Vouloir être de l’autre sexe », pp. 189-199) ; Shahram Khosravi, Young and Defiant in Tehran (2007). On sexuality in Iran, see : Janet Afary, Sexual Politics in Modern Iran, Cambridge University Press, 2009. For Ahmadinejad’s quotes about no homosexuals existing in Iran, see the video by CNN and the Washington Post article (Sept 24, 2007) and see also the profile of his chief of staff, Esfandier Mashai : « The president’s awkward friend », The Economist, Sept 11, 2010. On the use of the death penalty against LGBT people, see the report by the Iran Human Rights (here) and also Scott Long, « Unbearable witness : how Western activists (mis)recognize sexuality in Iran », Contemporary Politics, Vol. 15, N°1, Mars 2009, pp. 119-136.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Les diplomates du pape » (french version) / « Pope’s diplomats» (english version).

Mokrzycki (Mieczysław)

– Polish Archbishop
– A polish priest, born in 1961, who became the second personal secretary of John Paul II (deputy of Mgr. Stanislaw Dziwish). Later, he was consecrated bishop and he is now the archbishop of Lviv in the Ukraine and president of the Ukranian Episcopal conference.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Sacré collège » (french version) / « Sacred College» (english version).

Montalembert (Charles de)

– French Catholic politician
◊ See Henri Lacordaire
– Politician, journalist, and a Catholic liberal intellectual, Montalembert (1810-1870) was one of the founders of the law on the freedom of schools (Loi Falloux) in favor of Catholic schools.
– He was a close friend of the Dominican priest Henri Lacordaire (1802-1861). The recently published correspondence between Montalembert and Henri Lacordaire by Le Cerf publisher, in 1989, confirms their homosexuality and their long-term love affair (read the explicit preface by José Cabanis). In his novel Volupté, Sainte Beuve had already described the homosexuality of Lacordaire under a pseudonym.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Montherlant (Henry de)

– French Writer.
– The biography on Montherlant by Pierre Sipriot, Montherlant sans masques, Robert Laffont, two volumes: Vol. 1, L’Enfant prodigue, 1982 ; Vol. 2, Ecris avec ton sang, 1990 (reedition in paperback in a single volume, Livre de Poche).
– See also, Angelo Rinaldi, “Henry de Montherlant : pour deux pages d’un vrai stoïcien ?”, L’Express, 16 avril 1973 and Dominique Fernandez, Le Rapt de Ganymède, Grasset, 1989 (especially the chapter “Le Don Juan de Montherlant”).
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Le Code Maritain » (french version) / « Maritain’s Code» (english version).

Moraglia (Francesco)

– Patriarch of Venice
– “Moraglia: no to gay marriage, ok to gay rights”, Alvise Sperandio (Newspaper: Il Gazzettino), 26/10/2014 : Moraglia thinks that marriage is only between a man and a woman but he’s in favor of a recognition of rights for gay couples (for example, social security benefits and other private law rights).
• “Moraglia: it is essential to have man and woman”, VVox, August 19, 2015 : « A Catholic needs to follow what Pope Francis said: woman and man are different, a ‘gender theory’ [in Italy there was a big debate about this] according to which there isn’t a natural difference between the two genders is not admissible. »
• “Sex scandal, Moraglia: we want to know the truth”, Nuova Venezia, Jan 28, 2017. Near Padua (15 km from Venice) a priest has been accused of sexual assault by a woman. The police also found out that there were orgies organized by this priest in his parish.
Moraglia said that he was angry and these behaviors, if confirmed, were not Christian. He also said that people who want to be priests need to be double-checked during their time in the seminary.
• “The Church of Venice against prostitution” (radiovaticana) : in this interview Mgr Moraglia explains the actions of the Church of Venice against prostitution. He said that the clients need to be prosecuted.
• “About gay rights and discriminations, Moraglia: we respect rights but no to gay education in school”, (Corriere del Veneto), Feb 12, 2014 : the City of Venice decided to distribute books with fairy tales against discrimination in public schools. Moraglia said this was inappropriate because, even though it’s important to fight discrimination, society is founded upon the idea of a “natural family”. His opinion is that if someone is gay it’s a “cultural choice”, they can have rights but the man-woman family is more important.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in several chapters of the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Morini (Gianluca)

– Former priest based in Massa Carrara, alias Don Euro
◊ See Francesco Mangiacapra
– The main scandal broke in 2015, when the escort Mangiacapra sent all the email he had exchanged with Morini to the newspaper La Nazione and the local Curia, which opened an investigation. Mangiacapra detailed all he knew about the priest, his expensive travels, how he loved using cocaine and paying men to have sex. Don Euro, as he was called before his identity became known to the public, used to introduce himself as a wealthy magistrate, not as a priest (Il Fatto Quotidiano). In November 2015, the case became bigger when the TV show “Le Iene” did a segment on Don Euro, interviewing him thanks to the help of another young escort, Angelo (see here). In February 2018, it emerged that the priest had used money from parishioners to pay for his vices (here). Since March 2018 he is no longer a priest. The decision was made by the Congregation for the Clergy following the scandal and following the request for indictment made by the Italian authorities. He will probably go on trial in Massa Carrara (here).
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Roma Termini » (french & english version).

Moro (Aldo)

– Prime Minister of Italy (1974-1976)
– On Aldo Moro, the bibliography is important, especially since he was kidnapped in 1978 and then assassined after 55 days of captivity by the Red Brigades. I read Gerald Posner, I banchieri di Dio, Newton Company Editori ; trans. in English, God’s Bankers, A History of Money and Power at the Vatican, Simon & Schuster, 2015. On Aldo Moro’s life, I also saw the interesting movie Todo modo by Elio Petri (released two years before the assassination).
– Aldo Moro was known to be a close personal friend of Pope Paul VI. The Pope asked him to act when the rumor about his homosexuality was made public.
– Both the movie by Elio Petri, Todo modo, and Posner’s book suggest the possibility of of Aldo Moro’s “homophily”. Several other books and articles suggested the same idea.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « L’Amour d’amitié » (french version) / « Loving Friendship» (english version).

Mozart

– On the life of Mozart and the ambiguities of his sexuality, I use Dominique Fernandez, Amants d’Apollon, L’homosexualité dans la culture, Grasset, 2015 (see three texts : “Apollon Pothos”, “Hyacinthe changé en fleur” and “Les masques du séducteur Dom Juan”).
– See also the important article : Alex Ross, The Storm of Style, Listening to the complete Mozart, The New Yorker, July 24, 2006.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Müller (Gerhard Ludwig)

– German Cardinal and former head of the Congregation for the Doctrine of Faith
– An orthodox and anti-Francis cardinal, Müller, then 69, was fired by Pope Francis in July 2017. He was immediately replaced by his deputy, Archbishop Luis Ladaria, 73, a Spanish Jesuit theologian.
– Cardinal Gerhard Müller, Informe sobre la esperanza, Madrid, 2016 ; trans. in French : Entretien sur l’espérance, Dialogue avec Carlos Granados, Parole et Silence, 2017.
– Müller and liberation theology : see the interesting debate between Gustavo Gutierrez and Cardinal Müller : G. Gutiérrez, G.L. Müller, Dalla parte dei poveri. Teologia della liberazione, teologia della Chiesa, Edizioni Messaggero-EMI, Padoue, 2013 (trans. in English : On The Side of the Poor. The Theology of Liberation, Orbis Book, 2015 ; trans. in French : Aux côtés des pauvres : l’Eglise et la théologie de la libération, Bayard, 2014). See also, on this question, a rebuttal by Sandro Magister « Paix conclue entre Müller et Gutiérrez. Mais Bergoglio n’est pas d’accord”, Espresso, Sept 2013.
– Müller was appointed by Pope Benedict XVI, before his resignation. He was an ideological conservative, especially on the issues of homosexuality, abortion, and women in the Church. To understand his biography and enigma, see : Edmund Waldsein, “Panzerkardinal; or the Enigma of Bishop Gerhard Ludwig Müller”, Sancrucensis, July 3, 2012.
– Cardinal Müller has been sometimes criticized for being soft on the question of sexual abuses. When the Pope proposed creating a tribunal for bishops who mishandled sexual abuse cases, Cardinal Müller declared that the idea had “legal” difficulties, and the tribunal never came to be (see here). Some organizations have accused Müller of wrongdoings as the Vatican anti-pedophilia tsar, on abuse cases. Marie Collins, a key figure in the battle against pedophilia in Ireland, criticized Cardinal Müller for playing down complaints (see here).
– Interview “Homophobia is a Hoax”, see here. And “Cardinal Müller clarifies : There are ‘no exceptions’ to ban on Communion for ‘remarried’”, Lifesite, Nov 8, 2017.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Le Synode » (french version) / « The Synod» (english version).

— N —


Napier (Wilfrid Fox)

– South African cardinal
◊ See : Africa, Robert Sarah, AIDS
– On Napier’s anti-gay policies, see here. And a reaction by Peter Machen, a writer and Durban film festival director, see here.
– His anti-condom and AIDS position : here.
– Wilfrid Napier criticizing gay activities in the Church (here).
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Les diplomates du pape » (french version) / « The pope’s diplomats » (english version).

— O —


O’Brien (Edwin)

– US cardinal
– Edwin O’Brien, the Baltimore archbishop, was rector of the Pontifical North American College in Rome and former military chaplain in the US. He is currently the Grand Master of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre.
– Christine Niles, “Homosexual Ring in NY Archdiocese Reaches Highest Levels”, ChurchMilitant, March 7, 2016.
– SNAP’s association of victim of sexual abuse intervention against Edwin O’Brien (source).
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « La Théorie du Genre » (french version) / « Gender Theory » (english version).

O’Brien (Keith)

– Former cardinal from Scotland (resigned)
– Biography : The Guardian.
– On Cardinal Keith O’Brien see : Laurie Goodstein, “Now Gathering in Rome, a Conclave of Fallible Cardinals”, New York Times, Feb 26, 2013.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in several chapters of the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Oliva (Adriano)

– Dominican priest.
◊ See Thomas Aquinas
– Italian priest from the Dominican Convent of Paris. He is in charge of the “Commission Leonine” and he coordinates the critical edition of Saint Thomas d’Aquinas.
– He published L’Amicizia più grande. Un contributo teologico alle questioni sui divorziati risposati e sulle coppie omosessuali, Éd. Nerbini, 2015 ; trans. in French : Amours, l’Eglise, les divorcés remariés, les couples homosexuels, Éditions du Cerf, 2015.
– Some reactions : Thibault Colin, “Un thomisme gay? Sur une légitimation des unions homosexuelles”, blog, on the La Croix website, Nov 9, 2015 (unofficial blog) ; Henri Donneaud (a Dominican), “Questions disputées sur l’essence et les fins du mariage selon Thomas d’Aquin”, Revue Thomiste, July 7, 2016 ; “Aquinas and homosexuality”, Five dominicans respond to Adriano Oliva, 11 Dec., 2015 (from the Angelecum in Rome, here). For a long point of view in favor of Adriano Oliva, see : Camille de Belloy in Revue des Sciences philosophiques et théologiques and “Comment Saint Thomas justifie l’homosexualité”, Le Point, Dec 17, 2015.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Le Synode » (french version) / « The Synod » (english version).

Opus Dei

◊ See : Spain
– On the history of Opus Dei, see : Corrado Augias, I Segreti del Vaticano, Mondadori, 2010 (trans in French : “La Sainte secte de Dieu”, in Dans les Secrets du Vatican, De Pierre à François, L’incroyable histoire des papes, L’Express, Thema, Jan 2016).
– The Opus Dei is not the subject of my book. However, the gay issue has been very often discussed in link with this very conservative catholic organization : BBC Mundi ; Periodista Digital.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in several chapters of the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Orient Travels

(“Voyage en Orient” in the XIXth century)
◊ See also: Sodom ; Dead Sea (The) ; Middle East and Arab World.
General readings : Edward Said, L’orientalisme : L’Orient créé par l’Occident, Seuil, 2005 ; Covering Islam: How the Media and the Experts Determine How We See the Rest of the World, Vintage, 1997 and Culture et Impérialisme, Fayard, 2000. On identities see Amin Maalouf, Les Identités meurtrières, Le livre de poche, 2001.
– On « chrétiens d’orient » : Christian Cannuyer, Les Coptes ; Herman Teule, Les Assyro-Chaldéens (Collection « Les Fils d’Abraham », Ed Brepols) ; Emilios Inglessis, Maximos IV, L’Orient conteste l’Occident, Cerf, 1969 ; Andrea Pacini, « Les communautés chrétiennes dans le monde musulman arabe », Revue Proche Orient Chrétien, 1997 ; Bernard Heyberger, Les Chrétiens au Proche-Orient. De la compassion à la compréhension, Payot, 2013,
Châteaubriand (1806-1807) : Itinéraire de Paris à Jérusalem, Gallimard, 2005 (for the Dead Sea and Sodom, see : Part III, pp. 261-334)
Lamartine (1832-1833) : Voyage en Orient, Gallimard, 2011 (for the Dead Sea, see : “Bords du Jourdain, au-delà de la plaine de Jéricho, à quelques lieux de l’embouchure du fleuve dans la mer Morte”, pp. 407-412).
Gustave Flaubert (1849-1851) : Voyage en Orient, Gallimard, 2006 (for the Dead Sea, see: pp. 245-280). For the bisexual relations of Flaubert in Orient, see Michel Winock, Flaubert, Gallimard, 2013. See also his extraordinary letters : Flaubert, Correspondance, ed. by Bernard Masson, Gallimard, 1975, reed. Folio, 1995 (the letter about Sodome is to Theophile Gautier on August 13, 1850).
Maxime du Camp (1849-1851) : du Camp travelled with Flaubert and published its interesting notes : Souvenirs et paysages d’Orient, pub. Arthus Bertrand, 1848. See also the photo album : Egypte, Nubie, Palestine et Syrie. Dessins photographiques recueillis pendant les années 1849, 1850 et 1851.
Ernest Renan (1860-1861 & 1864-1865) : See Vie de Jésus, Calmann-Lévy, 1867 ; Souvenirs d’enfance et de jeunesse, Calmann-Lévy, 1883.
Rimbaud (he did not go to the Dead Sea) : A TRADUIRE : Bien que ce fut l’un de ses rêves, Rimbaud n’ira pas ni en Palestine, ni en Syrie, ni en Arabie (mais en Égypte, au Yémen et en Abyssinie) : sa passion pour l’Orient n’en est que plus vive, comme l’attestent sa correspondance, sa célèbre formule « l’Orient, la patrie primitive », et la « ligne des orients » de ses Illuminations.
Pierre Loti (in 1894) : See Voyages au Moyen-Orient, Arthaud, 2012 (the mention of Sodom in his trip to the Dead Sea is in the part II, “Jerusalem”, April 8th, 1894, pp. 270-277).
Marcel Proust : He never travelled to the Dead Sea or Sodom but he wrote one of the main novel on the subject : A la recherché du temps perdu, Part V. : Sodome et Gomorrhe, 1921-1922, reed Gallimard, 1989 (on the history of Sodom, see the beautiful pages pp. 32-33). See also : “Choses d’Orient”, in Marcel Proust, Chroniques, L’Imaginaire/Gallimard, 1927.
For an overall view on “Le Voyage en Orient”, see Jean-Claude Berchet, Le Voyage en Orient, Anthologie des voyageurs français dans le Levant au XIXème siècle, Robert Laffont, 1985 (see Part V, pp. 587-816).
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Les diplomates du pape » (french version) / « The Pope’s diplomats » (english version).

Ormando (Alfredo)

– Italian seminarist and writer
– As a catholique, Alfredo Ormando went in a Franciscan seminar and left to become writer. He wrote a trilogy : Il Dubbio, L’Escluso et Sotto il cielo d’Urano and a novel : Il Fratacchione (le gros moine) in 1995. Obsessed with homosexuality, he killed himself in 1998 on San Peter Plazza near the Vatican to protest the position of the church on homosexuality. See : Alfredo Ormando, Vagiti primaverili: poesie, Pietraperzia, Di Prima, 1986 ; Il monte incantato e altre fiabe, 1998 ; Il fratacchione, Palermo, Publisicula, 1995 ; L’escluso; Sotto il cielo di Urano; Epigrammi priaprei e non; Aforismi, 1998.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Ortega (Jaime)

– Cardinal Emeritus of Habana.
◊ On Ortega, see the entry: Cuba.

OSCAD

◊ Voir: Police

Ouellet (Marc)

– Cardinal from Canada
– Sexual abuse cover up : Cardinal Donald Wuerl has been criticized in the 2nd Vigano’s Memo ; he is also mentionned on the “dirty dozen” list edited by the Survivors’ Network of those Abused by Priests (SNAP) (source here). On Cardinal Ouellet, see also : Laurie Goodstein, “Now Gatheringin Rome, a Conclave of Fallible Cardinals”, New York Times, Feb. 26, 2013. See also Radio Canada and The Toronto Sun. (Some media outlets also criticize the fact that Cardinal Ouellet’s brother has sex-abuse convictions, but that’s not a relevant information to judge the cardinal).
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Le Synode » (french version) / « The Synode » (english version).

— P —


Paglia (Vincenzo)

– Italian archbishop
– Paglia is the president of the Pontifical Academy for Life. Earlier, he was in charge of the Pontifical Council for Family. He co-founded the Community of Sant’Egidio.
– Numerous articles have been written by the right-wing medias about the prelate Vincenzo Paglia apparearing himself (supposedly) in a cathedral mural, clutching another semi-nude man (See LifeStyle).
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Parolin (Pietro)

◊ See also: Pope Francis

– Italian Cardinal. Secretary of State of pope Francis.

– See : « The Vatican, the priest, the lawyer of Netanyahu : billion dollar real estate scandal », by Emiliano Fittipaldi, Espresso, March 19, 2019.

Pasolini (Pier Paolo)

– Italian movie director.
– On Pasolini, I use the biography by Enzo Siciliano, Une Vie, 1978, translation in French, ed. la Difference, 1983 ; I also make small use of a short (and poor) biography by René de Ceccatty, Gallimard, Folio, 2005.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in several chapters of the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Pedacchio (Fabian)

– Personal secretary of Pope Francis
– He came to Rome in 2007 thanks to Cardinal Bergoglio and started working at the Congregation for Bishops. He had a profile on Badoo where he used his real name “Fabián Pedacchio, 49, Man”. He wrote that he loved the Opera, Gabriel García Márquez’s books, and Pedro Almodóvar’s movies. He said he dated a few girls when he was young. (the profile here, which has been deleted). See also here. And for background, here and here. (Pedacchio denied the Badoo account being his).
– On February 5th, 2007 he was made Commander Order of Merit of the Italian Republic by the President of the Italian Republic on the recommendation of the President of the Council of Ministers when the President visited Benedict XVI. A bunch of people were ordained that day (source).
– He is involved with a voluntary association Mani Guanelliane di Provvidenza in Cosenza, as attested by this Facebook page and this one.
– In 2011, he took part in the signing of the agreement bewteen the Holy See and Montenegro.
– He has been a member of the Order of Saint Stanislaus since 2011.
­– See also these articles : Dagospia ; Espresso.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Qui suis-je pour juger ?» (french version) / « Who I m to judge ?» (english version).

Peeters (Marguerite)

◊ See also: Cardinal Sarah.

– A Belgian anti-gender activist.
– See the preface by Cardinal Sarah of Marguerite Peeters, Le Gender, Une norme mondiale ? Pour un discernement, éd. Mame, 2013 (pp. 1-6). See also : Marguerite Peeters, La mondialisation de la revolution culturelle occidentale, Institute for InterculturDialogue Dynamics,

{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Les diplomates du pape » (french version) / « Pope’s diplomats » (english version).

Pell (George)

– Australian cardinal.
– Cardinal and Prefect of the Secretariat for the Economy of the Vatican. Here is a good biography of the cardinal and the charges against him in Australia.
– Sexual abuse and cover-up scandals : hundreds of articles have been written in Australia and around the world on this issue, related to Cardinal Pell. For background information : Debi Marshall, “The girls, the paedophile and Cardinal Pell”, SBS (not available online, see here from a blog copy) ;
For the alleged cover-up : see Emiliano Fittipaldi, Lussuria, Peccati, scandali e tradimenti di una Chiesa fatta di uomini, Feltrinelli, 2017 ; “Child Abuse : 7 % of Australian Catholic priests alleged to be involved”, BBC, 6 fev 2017 ; Adam Cooper, “Pell hearing to be heard behind closed doors”, The Courier, Dec 12, 2017 ; See also : The Guardian ; The Age ; New York Times ; Comunicato della Sala Stampa della Santa Sede ; New York Times ; Le Monde ; ABC.
– Viganò Memo and SNAP : Cardinal George Pell has been criticized in the Viganò Memo in August 2018 (here the original in Italian ; in English ; in French) ; he is also mentioned on the “dirty dozen” list edited by the Survivors’ Network of those Abused by Priests (SNAP) (source here).
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Le Synode » (french version) / « The Synod » (english version).

Peru

– For an overview of the situation in Peru, see : Lester Feder, “The Congressman, The Cardinal and the Peruvian Closet”, Buzzfeed, Dec 7, 2013.
– The main scandal in Peru concerns “The Sodalicio”, an arm of Opus Dei in Peru (officially called “Sodalitium Christianae Vitae”), which has been criticized for sexual abuse. The founder of the Sodalicio, Luis Fernando Figari, has been sanctioned by the Vatican. See the important book by Pedro Salinas, Mitad Monjes, Mitad Soldados, Todo lo que el Sodalicio No quiere que sepas, Planeta (Half Monks, Half Soldiers ; the book was written with Paola Ugaz).
– See also the tensions between the pro-LGBT mayor of Lima, Susana Villàran, and the Cardinal Juan Luis Cipriani (Source).
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Drôle de ménage » (french version) / « Strange houseold » (english version).

Peyrefitte (Roger)

– French Writer
– On the rumor concerning the homosexuality of Pius XII and Paul VI see: Magazine Lui, 1976 ; see also Propos secrets, tome 1, 1977 ; tome 2, 1980, Albin Michel.
– Without modern journalistic ethics, Roger Peyrefitte mentions his main source on the homosexuality of Pius XII and Paul VI : Mgr Léon Gromier “chanoine de Saint-Pierre, Consulteur à la Sacrée Congrégation des Rites et Protonotaire apostolique” (Propos Secrets, vol. 1, 1977, p. 243).
– See also, Roger Peyrefitte, Des Français, Flammarion, 1970 ; Tableaux de chasse, Albin Michel, 1976 and his novels Les Clés de Saint Pierre, Flammarion, 1955 and La Soutane rouge, 1987 (Montini-Paul VI appears under pseudonym in the book). See, Angelo Rinaldi, L’Express, 25 juillet 1977.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « L’Amour d’amitié » (french version) / « Loving Friendship » (english version).

Piacenza (Mauro)

– Italian Cardinal.
– On the debate on Vatileaks, see Nicolas Diat, L’Homme qui ne voulait pas être pape, Histoire secrete d’un règne, Albin Michel, 2014 (chapter 27 ; not translated into English nor Italian ; the book has been panned by the Pope’s spokesman, Federico Lombardi, who considers it « seriously misleading »).
– On his links with the nuncio Balestrero, see “L’ex nunzio Balestrero “consolato” dal cardinale Piacenza. Grazie a Dio c’è Papa Francesco”: Farodi Roma, Nov 3, 2018.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in several chapters of the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Piechota (Lech)

– Personal Assistant of Cardinal Bertone
– He is part of Tarcisio Bertone’s closest entourage, according to La Stampa (2013)
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Le Vice-Pape » (french version) / « The Vice-Pope » (english version).

Poland

◊ See: Dziwisz (Stanislaw) ; Solidarnosc ; Pope John Paul II ; Glodz (Slawoj Leszek) ; Mokrzycki (Mieczyslaw) ; Przydatek (Casimiro) etc.
On Poland, I use mainly : David Yallop, The Power and the Glory, Inside the Dark Heart of John Paul II’s Vatican, Carroll & Graf Publishers, 2007 ; Jacek Moskwa, Tajemnice Konklawe 1978, Znak Ed. [in Polish], and Miroslaw Wlekły, All Inclusive, Raj, w. Ktorym seks jest bogiem, Agora, Warsaw, 2015 [in Polish, with a translation provided by the author]. On the overall context of LGBT rights in Poland, see : Philippe M. Ayoub, “With Arms Wide Shut : Threat Perception, Norm Reception and Mobilized Resistance to LGBT Rights”, Journal of Human Rights, 13:337-362, 2014.
On John-Paul II’s Poland, see : Bernard Lecomte, Les Secrets du Vatican, Perrin, 2009 ; reed. Tempus, 2011 (see pp. 227-251). See also : Carl Bernstein and Marco Politi, Sa Sainteté Jean-Paul II et l’histoire cachée de notre époque, Plon, 1996 (especially on Dziwisz).
On the possible funding of Solidarnosc : I mainly use the book by Fabio Marchese Ragona, Il Caso Marcinkus, Chiarelettere, 2018 (on the funding of Solidarnosc, the book suggests that over one billion dollars was transferred from/by the Vatican to Solidarnosc in the 1980s ; Archbishop Marcinkus, Stanislaw Dziwisz and the Polish Jesuit priest Casimiro Przydatek might have been the main architects of the transfers ; see pp. 118-130). See also : Franca Giansoldati, Il Demonio in Vaticano I Legionari di Cristo e Il caso Maciel, Edizioni Piemme Spa, 2014, trans. in French : L’Affaire Maciel, Albin Michel, 2015 (in this influential book, Giansoldati reveals the exchange of money between Marcial Maciel and the Vatican) ; Carl Bernstein and Marco Politi, Sa Sainteté, Jean-Paul II et l’histoire cachée de notre époque, Plon, 1996 ; Gianluigi Nuzzi, Vaticano S.p.A, Chiarelettere, 2009 ; trans. in French : Sa Sainteté, Scandales au Vatican (he describes the account of the Foundation Cardinal Francis Spellan) ; or David Yallop, The Power and the Glory : Inside the Dark Heart of Pope John Paul II’s Vatican, 2009 (who suggests that more than 100 million dollars were sent to Solidarnosc by the Vatican of John-Paul II) ; see also “Dans les coulisses du Vatican”, L’Express, Special Issue, Jan./March 2016 (“Les errements des banquiers de Dieu”, pp. 152-159). See also on the links between Stanislaw Dziwisz and Marcial Maciel : John Thavis, “The Vatican diaries” which discusses Dziwisz’s contacts with the Legionaries of Christ and Marcial Maciel. In respect to the financial support of Solidarnosc by Legionaries, see this article by Gazeta Wyborcza (in Polish) : the author writes: “In all probability Maciel supports Solidarnosc in Poland. That was the reason for the friendship with John Paul II. Each time his sins have been neutralized. Over and over as the new documents reach the Vatican, the old ones had already been forgotten.” In this article he writes that he made use of the following books: « La Iglesia del silencio. De mártires y pederastas », « Marcial Maciel. La historia de un criminal » and « La voluntad de no saber ». (See above : Marcial Maciel.) See also : Vatican help for communist Poland (Pomoc Watykanu dla komunistycznej Polski) : About how John Paul II supposedly sent 150 million dollars for the needs of the Church and Solidarity in Poland between 1981-1989 (source). President Lech Walesa says that Solidarity received money from the Vatican (source).
On sexual abuse in Poland : A dark side of the Catholic Church, priests and paedophilia, The Economist, May 24, 2013.
On the Juliusz Paetz scandal : “Polish sex scandal archbishop quits”, CNN, March 28, 2002. See also : Marcin Kacki, Kuszenie W Cieniu Katedry, Gazeta Wyborcza : (fragments translated) : « …an anecdote from Paetz: one day, in 1976, Pope Paul VI walked along the corridors of the Vatican in the procession of cardinals and ordered to stop. – Who is this priest? – Asks the Pope, pointing at Paetz. Summons him, lets him kiss the ring, exchanging a few words with him. After a few weeks, Paetz becomes the prelate of the antiquamera and gets an apartment reserved only for cardinals from the Vatican. • Although Paetz never officially confirmed it, in the biography of Paweł VI, the author Maciej Wrzeszcz, one can read that he was part of Paul VI’s entourage « at the explicit request of the Pope himself ». • During one of the dinners, Paetz blinks at Paweł after a second or third wine and says in a confidential whisper, « I think I can show you something. He takes out an album of photos in which he is in the company of celebrities. He removes two photos. On the first, black and white, stands on the beach in short shorts and a T-shirt, and next to it is a similarly dressed Pope Paul VI. On the second, young Paetz no longer has a T-shirt. • Paul asks if the archbishop is going to publish it someday.- You have a sense of humor. Turns on Andrei Bocelli’s album, tries to dance with Paweł.- Well then I looked, what? – You still look good…” • “Archbishop Juliusz Paetz concelebrates the masses. Despite the ban on the Vatican” (source) • In 1976, he was the only Pole appointed by Pope Paul VI to prelate of the antiquamera…” (source) : (fragment) […] “At that time, he was registered by the Polish Security Service as an information contact (pseudonym « Fermo »). The preserved documentation is incomplete, but the reports show that as much as 88 percent of the information received from him was considered important. […] A similar letter [on the abuse of young priests by Paetz] went to bishop Stanisław Dziwisz, secretary of the papacy. Unfortunately, neither these writings nor individual conversations did anything. […] Unfortunately, the case was covered up from the very beginning, mainly by the nuncio Kowalczyk, and no information was sent to Pope John Paul II. Therefore, the Poznań priests decided to send the letter through prof. Wanda Półtawska, who smuggled them to the Vatican and during the private audience read the attachments to the Holy Father. According to her, the Pope was shocked by the fact and the fact that his immediate surroundings did not inform him about it. Only then did the Vatican curia decide to send a special commission to Poznań. […] Incidentally, Cardinal Dziwisz in his numerous and very extensive memoirs from the Vatican about the long-term friendship of John Paul II did not once mention her. In turn, Archbishop Paetz in a letter addressed to me on November 6, 2013 tried to discredit this brave woman and her actions. (See also CNN).
On Henryk Jankowski : a Catholic priest and key member of Solidarnosc. A recent reportage from Gazeta Wyborcza, in Dec. 2018, shows the double life of this priest (see Gazeta Wyborcza).
Film : More recently, in 2018, the film KLER, by Wojcieh Smarzowski has had a huge impact in Poland, describing sexual abuses by priests in Poland. (See the critic here).
On the “huge homosexual underground network in the Church of Poland”, see this article by LifeSiteNews, Feb 26, 2013.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Sacré College» and « Les Legionnaires du Christ » (french version) / « Sacred College» and « Legionnaries of Christ (english version).

Police (and Carabinieri, Oscad, Digos, Polis Aperta)

– In Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican, I have often used information from the association Polis Aperta, a group of about a hundred LGBT soldiers, carabinieri and policemen. Several of its members in Rome, Castel Gandolfo, Milan, Naples, Turin, Padua and Bologna have given me accounts of the prostitution at Roma Termini and, more broadly, the commercial sex lives of ecclesiastics. (In some cases I also use anonymized information and statistics from the SDI crime database
shared by the various Italian law-enforcement organizations.)
– Andrea Pini, Omocidi. Gli omosessuali uccisi in Italia, Stampa Alternativa, 2002 (and also here).
– LGBT police association : see The Guardian ; Gay News.
– See also : The Guardian ; Il Fatto Quotidiano.
– On OSCAD, see here.
– On DIGOS, see here.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Politi (Marco)

– Vaticanist, Italy.
– See his book : Marco Politi, La Confessione. Un prete gay racconta la sua storia, Editori Riuniti, 2000
{further readingThis book is mainly used as background information in several chapters of the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Pope Benedict XVI & Cardinal Ratzinger

◊ See also : Tarcisio Bertone ; Vaticanleaks ; Marcial Maciel ; Georg Ratzinger ; Georg Gänswein ; Ideology of the church.
Main resources : many texts are available on a dedicated website : www.ratzinger.it
Biography of Joseph Ratzinger : Benedict XVI, Ma vie. Souvenirs 1927-1977, Fayard, 1998 ; Benedict XVI, Lumière du monde, Le pape, l’église et les signes du temps, conversation with Peter Seewald, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2010 ; Benedict XVI, Dernières conversations with Peter Seewald, Fayard, 2016 ; Bernard Lecomte, Benoît XVI, Perrin, 2002, reed. 2011 ; Bernard Lecomte, Les Secrets du Vatican, Perrin, 2009 ; reed. Tempus, 2011 (see pp. 355-366) ; Andrea Tornielli, Benoît XVI, La Biographie, Citadelle, 2005. I have read also with interest Aidan Nichols, La pensée de Benoît XVI
Introduction à la théologie de Joseph Ratzinger, Ad Solem, 2008. A serie of articles by the French Vaticanist Henri Tincq, April 20, 2005, Le Monde ; April 21, 2005, Le Monde ; April 23, 2005, Le Monde ; Isabelle de Gaulmyn, Benoît XVI, Le pape incompris, Bayard, 2008. For a more polemical and biased approach, see: Nicolas Diat, L’Homme qui ne voulait pas être pape, Histoire secrete d’un règne, Albin Michel, 2014 (not translated into English nor Italian; the book has been panned by the Pope’s spokesman, Federico Lombardi, who considers it « seriously misleading » and « without any basis »).
Education, Thought, Ideas : I have used several books by Ratzinger : La Foi chrétienne hier et aujourd’hui, Cerf, 1969, reed. 2005 ; Instruction sur quelques aspects de la théologie de la libération, Tequi, 1984 ; Entretiens sur la foi (with Vittorio Messori), Fayard, 1985. On Maritain and Ratzinger, see James Hanink, Maritain Studies, here (in English) ; see also the speech by Benedict XVI “Discours au monde la culture”, in Paris, at College des Bernardins, on Sept 12, 2008. On what I call Ratzinger’s “bovarysm”, see : Jules de Gaultier, quoted by Victor Segalen, in “Le Double Rimbaud”, Le Mercure de France, April 15, 1906 (see Arthur Rimbaud, Oeuvres Complètes, Pléiade, Introction, p. X, note 1.).
– Celibacy : See Ratzinger, Introduction to Christianity, trans. in French : Chemins vers Jesus (see especially the chapter on Gandhi). J. Ratzinger was fascinated by Gandhi’s choice of celibacy. He invited Gandhi’s grandson to the Vatican. We know of Gandhi’s possible “homophily” from a recent biography (see : Joseph Lelyveld, Great Soul, Mahatma Gandhi and his struggle with India, especially pp. 79-104. I also found the letters between Gandhi and his friend Kallenbach in South Africa, see my book F. Martel, Global Gay, Flammarion, 2013. See also this article in the New York Times.)
Text about love : Lettre Encyclique Deux Caritas Est, by Benedict XVI, Dec 25, 2005.
On the debate on homosexuality : I use mainly Sigmund Freud, Un souvenir d’enfance de Léonard de Vinci, PUF, 2012. See also the books which discussed the topic : Angelo Quattrocchi, The Pope is NOT gay, Verso, 2010 ; xxx ; see also an interview of Peter Seewald in Christ & Welt, complement of Die Zeit on Sept 7, 2016. See also : Colm Tóibín, « Among the Flutterers », London Review of Books, June 1st, 2010 (a key article about Ratzinger and the gay issue) ; Adam Taylor, “Leading catholic blogger sees more evidence that the pope is gay”, Business Insider, Feb., 27, 2013 ; Andrew Sullivan, Two popes, One Secretary, see here ; Francis DeBarnado, “Is the Retired Pope is Gay?”, New Ways Ministry, March 5, 2013 ; Michael Dickinson, “Meet Gorgeous Georg, the Holy Pontiff’s Live-in Partner”, Counterpunch, Jan 11, 2013 ; “Allemagne: Benoît XVI outé par une ancienne camarade d’université”, Vice, 2011 (see also here).
Ratzinger and music : See Joseph Ratzinger, Laudate Dio con arte, selection of articles about arts and music, Foreword by Ricardo Muti, trans. in French : L’Esprit de la musique, Artège, 2011. See also the text : “La musique sacrée du Pape pianist”. I also recommend this article by Alex Ross, “The Decline of Opera Queens and the Rise of Gay Opera”, The New Yorker, July 27, 2017.
Cardinal Ratzinger as Prefect of the Congregation of the Doctrine of the Faith :
Election of Pope Benedict XVI : see Gerald Posner, I banchieri di Dio, Newton Company Editori ; trans. in English, God’s Bankers, A History of Money and Power at the Vatican, Simon & Schuster, 2015, chap 33, pp. 417-426.
Dance : Ratzinger and acrobats in the Vatican : see the video on YouTube : here ; here ; and here.
On the war within the Curia : See Nicolas Diat, L’Homme qui ne voulait pas être pape, Histoire secrete d’un règne, Albin Michel, 2014 (chapter 30, pp. 289-297).
On the Vatileaks I scandal, 2012 (The Butler/Paolo Gabriele) : See Gianluigi Nuzzi, Sua Saintita, La Carte Segrete di Benedetto XVI, 2012, trans. : Sa Sainteté, Scandale au Vatican, Privé, 2012 ; Gerald Posner, I banchieri di Dio, Newton Company Editori ; trans. in English, God’s Bankers, A History of Money and Power at the Vatican, Simon & Schuster, 2015, chap 38, pp. 461-471. For a more polemical and biased approach, see: Nicolas Diat, L’Homme qui ne voulait pas être pape, Histoire secrete d’un règne, Albin Michel, 2014 (not translated into English nor Italian; see the names that Diat claims to be potentially responsible for Vatileaks, pp. 265, and 268).
On the Vatileaks II scandal, Fall 2015 (Pope Francis vs. Francesco Immacolata Chaouqui/Mgr Lucio Angel Vallejo Balda and the journalists Gianluigi Nuzzi and Emiliano Fittipaldi) : See Gianluigi Nuzzi, Sua Saintita, La Carte Segrete di Benedetto XVI, 2012, trans. : Sa Sainteté, Scandale au Vatican, Privé, 2012 ; See Marco Politi, Francesco tra i lupi, Gius, Laterza & Figli, 2014 ; trans. in French : François parmi les loups, ed. Philip Rey, 2015 ; French paperback (updated version) : François parmi les loups, Points, Seuil, 2015 (see : pp. 251-259).
On the Report of the “Three Cardinals” : ◊ see below : Report of Julián Herranz, Salvatore De Giorgi & Jozef Tomko (2012)
On the Austrian Cardinal Hans Hermann Groër pedophilia scandal : see Edward Pentin, “The Allegations Against Cardinal Sodano”, Catholic World Report, May 4, 2011.
On Marcial Maciel scandal : ◊ See Marcial Maciel, above.
On the pedophilia scandal and Ratzinger : see The film Secrets of the Vatican by Anthony Thomas, Frontline, PBS, 2014 retraces the Marcial Maciel scandal.
On Georg Ratzinger and pedophilia scandal : see ◊ Ratzinger (Georg)
On Georg Gänswein : see ◊ Gänswein (Georg)
On the quotation about “masculine” prostitute : Original in Benedikt XVI, Licht der Welt. Der Papst, die Kirche und die Zeichen der Zeit. Ein Gespräch mit Peter Seewald, Freiburg/Basel/Wien 2010, p. 146-147 : « Es mag begründete Einzelfälle geben, etwa wenn ein Prostituierter ein Kondom verwendet, wo dies ein erster Schritt zur Moralisierung sein kann, ein erstes Stück Verantwortung, um wieder ein Bewusstsein dafür zu entwickeln, dass nicht alles gestattet ist und man nicht alles tun kann, was man will. Aber es ist nicht die eigentliche Art, dem Übel der HIV-Infektion beizukommen. Diese muss wirklich in der Vermenschlichung der Sexualität liegen. » After the next question, Benedict continues : « Die Kirche sieht die Verwendung von Kondomen „nicht als wirkliche und moralische Lösung an. Im einen oder anderen Fall kann es in der Absicht, Ansteckungsgefahr zu verringern, jedoch ein erster Schritt sein auf dem Weg hin zu einer anders gelebten, menschlicheren Sexualität. » Remark : « ein Prostituierter » is clearly masculine.
– On the secret sweet art of Ratzinger, mysteriously discovered when he was retired as Pope : Andrea Tornielli, « The young loves of Ratzinger other Popes. The journalist Peter Seewald has revealed to German newspaper Die Zeit that Benedict XVI experienced a “great love” that made it hard for him to choose the path of celibacy », La Stampa, Sept 8, 2016.
About the End of Benoit XVI’s Papacy : Concita de Gregorio, « Sesso e carriera, i ricatti in Vaticano dietro la rinuncia di Benedetto XVI », La Repubblica, Feb 21 2013) ; Jean-Marie Guénois, Rumeurs sur les raisons de la démission de Benoît XVI, Le Figaro, Feb 23-24, 2013 ; John Hooper, “Papal resignation linked to inquiry into Vatican gay officials, says paper”, The Guardian, Feb 22, 2013 ; See Marco Politi, Francesco tra i lupi, Gius, Laterza & Figli, 2014 ; trans. in French : François parmi les loups, ed. Philip Rey, 2015 ; French paperback (updated version) : François parmi les loups, Points, Seuil, 2015 (see : p 41-57 ; p. 59-62). See also: Michael Meier, “Der emeritierte Papst Rechtfertigt sich, Tages Anzeiger (Meier mentions some Vatileaks documents that have circulated in Germany and which might have played a role in the Pope’s resignation). (See also France Info).
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Passivo e Bianco » (french & english version) and in several other chapters of the book as background information.

Pope Francis (Pape François)

◊ See also : Argentina.
General references and biographies of Pope Francis : Marco Politi, Francesco tra i lupi, Gius, Laterza & Figli, 2014 ; trans. in French : François parmi les loups, ed. Philip Rey, 2015 ; French paperback (updated version) : François parmi les loups, Points, Seuil, 2015 (see : pp. 12-24 ; 177-207) ; Austen Ivereigh, The Great Reformer : Francis and the Making of a radical pope, Henry Holt, 2014 ; Gianluigi Nuzzi, Via Crucis 2015, trans. in French: Chemin de croix, Flammarion, 2015 ; Alexander Stille, “Holy Orders, A determined Pope Francis moves to reform a recalcitrant Curia”, The New Yorker, Sept 14, 2015 ; Jim Yardley, “A Humble Pope, Challenging the world”, New York Times, Sept 19-20, 2015 ; James Carroll, “Who I am To Judge ?”, The New Yorker, Dec 23-30, 2013 ; Isabelle de Gaulmyn, François, Un pape pour tous, Seuil, 2014 ; Arnaud Bédat, François seul contre tous, Flammarion, 2017 ; Jean-Louis de La Vaissière, François dans la Tempête, Salvator, 2018 ; Virginie Riva, Ce Pape qui derange, Atelier, 2018.
Books by or with Pope Francis : Jorge Maria Bergoglio, Papa Francesco, Nei Tuoi Occhi è la Mia Parola, Omelie e discorsi di Buenos Aires, 1999-2013, Introduzione e cura di Antonio Spadaro, Rizzoli, 2016 (here) ; Pape François, Rencontre avec Dominique Wolton, Politique et société, Un dialogue inédit, L’Observatoire, 2017.
Ideology of Pope Francis : Péronist? Anti-Trump? Guevarist? See Austen Ivereigh, The Great Reformer: Francis and the Making of a Radical Pope, Picador, 2015 ; See also : Austen Ivereigh, “Is the Pope the anti-Trump?”, New York Times, March 6, 2017 ; A liberal? See : Steve Skojec, “The Dictator of the Vatican”, Foreign Policy, April 8, 2016 ; Antonio Spadaro, Interview du pape François aux revues culturelles jésuites, Etudes, Sept 19, 2013 (original here) ; See also his key speech in March 7, 2013 on “périphéries existentielles”, including the gay issue).
On Cardinal Bergoglio in Argentina : See Nello Scavo, La Liste de Bergoglio, Bayard, 2014 (original in Italian) ; Jon Lee Anderson, “Pope Francis and the Dirty War”, The New Yorker, March 14, 2013 ; Marco Politi, Francesco tra i lupi, Gius, Laterza & Figli, 2014 ; trans. in French : François parmi les loups, ed. Philip Rey, 2015 ; French paperback (updated version) : François parmi les loups, Points, Seuil, 2015 (see : pp. 12-24 ; 177-207). See also for the context : Olga Wornat, Nuestra Santa Madre, Buenos Aires, Ediciones B, 2002 (I especially use this book : Olga Wornat interviewed Pio Laghi, Sodano, Sandri, Bergoglio).
On Jorge Bergoglio and Liberation Theology : see Silvina Pérez et Lucetta Scaraffia, François, le pape américain, Introduction de Giovanni Maria Vian, Presses de la renaissance, 2017 (a propaganda version of the idyllic life of Pope Francis in Argentina, see the text “Bergoglio”, pp. 23-86). For a more serious account, see Marco Politi, Francesco tra i lupi, Gius, Laterza & Figli, 2014 ; trans. in French : François parmi les loups, ed. Philip Rey, 2015 ; French paperback (updated version) : François parmi les loups, Points, Seuil, 2015 (see : pp. 177-207). See also : Jon Lee Anderson, “The Pope of Latin America”, The New Yorker, July 17, 2015.
Jorge Bergoglio’s position on homosexuality in Argentina : In spite of recent claims that Pope Francis is open towards homosexuality, he actively opposed the legislation that made marriage possible for gay couples in Argentina. In 2010, when he was still the archbishop of Buenos Aires, he wrote a letter to a convent saying that the law proposing to allow such marriages in the country was a “move by the devil”. 
On Bergoglio’s election as Pope Francis : see Gerald Posner, I banchieri di Dio, Newton Company Editori ; trans. in English, God’s Bankers, A History of Money and Power at the Vatican, Simon & Schuster, 2015, chap 42, pp. 494-502. See also Marco Politi, Francesco tra i lupi, Gius, Laterza & Figli, 2014 ; trans. in French : François parmi les loups, ed. Philip Rey, 2015 ; French paperback (updated version) : François parmi les loups, Points, Seuil, 2015 (see : pp. 59-79).
Speeches by Francis on the curia “diseases”, “âmes maquillées” and “rigid Christians” with a “double life” : Francis made numerous speeches and homilies criticizing the Curia. See : Jean-Marie Guénois, “L’attaque au vitriol de François contre la curie romaine”, Le Figaro, Dec 22, 2014 ; Jean-Marie Guénois, “Le pape François dénonce les resistances malveillantes au sein de la curie romaine”, Le Figaro, Dec 22, 2016 ; Oct 20, 2017 : Messe à Sainte Marthe, homily “Âmes maquillées” ; Cécile Chambraud, “La charge du pape contre la curie romaine”, Le Monde, 24 décembre 2014.
– On the rigid Christians (homily made after the Viganò memo) : “Pope at Mass : Be Careful around rigid Christians”, Oct 16, 2018 (here).
On the “anneau de luxure”/“stream of corruption” in the Curia: see the remark by Francis on June 6, 2013 : “Quand le pape François évoque le lobby gay”, Le Figaro, June 12, 2013 (see also New York Times).
On “Who Am I to Judge ?” : Rachel Donadio, “On Gay Priests, Pope Francis Asks, ‘Who Am I to Judge?’ ”, New York Times, July 29, 2013 ; Ariane Chemin, Le Pape François et les gays, Le Monde, 18 octobre 2018.
– On Pope Francis and the homosexuality issue. Rafael Romo, “Behind closed doors, pope supported civil unions in Argentina, activist says”, CNN, March 21, 2012 (source). On the meeting between Francis and his gay friend Yaho Grassi see : Jim Yardley and Laurie Goodstein, « Before Pope Francis Met Kim Davis, He Met With Gay Ex-Student », New York Times, Oct. 2, 2015 ; see also this video concerning a discussion between the pope and Juan Carlos Cruz in 2018 (See: The Guardian ; El Pais). See also his key speech in March 7, 2013 on “périphéries existentielles” (including the gay issue). Plus, the Pope on homosexuals in the seminary : La Stampa. More recently, Francis published a short book in which he discusses the question of homosexuality : “La forza della vocazione” Edizioni Dehoniane (trans. in French : La Force de la vocation). On this book, see : Andrea Tornielli, “Il Papa: l’omosessualità nella Chiesa mi preoccupa”, La Stampa, Nov 30, 2018.
– On the polemics on homosexualiy and psychiatry in 2018 : Le Monde ; RTL ; Explanations by Liberation.
Gender Theory. On Pope Francis’s position on gender theory, see a collection of several of Pope’s Francis speeches on the subject : Francesco Lepore, « The Bergogliario : Gender from Bergolio’s point of view », Pride Online, Nov. 15, 2016 ; see also : Jean-Marie Guénois, « Genre : le Pape s’élève contre les manipulations éducatives », Le Figaro, 12 avril 2014.
– On the « apology » to homosexuels by the Pope, in 2016, read transcripts by several newspapers, among them : Jean-Marie Guénois, « Brexit, gays, génocide, diaconesse, Benoît XVI: ce qu’a dit le pape François », Le Figaro, 27 juin 2016 ; See the video in this article : « Pope Francis Says Church Should Apologize to Gays », New York Times, June 27, 2016 ; Radio Canada  ; La Croix ;
– The long interview by François with Jesuit Spadaro, can be read in the original version in Italian ; here in English ; or here in French : ; for the context see : Le Figaro.
– Homilies against those “who use rigidity to cover-up their own sins » : see the transcript by Radio Vatican : October 24, 2016 and May 5, 2017 ; here also ; and here.
– On the “war” against Francis : for a right-wing perspective, see Paul Williams, Among the Ruins, The Decline and Fall of The Roman Catholic Church, Prometheus Books, 2017.
– See also this book : Paul Ariès, La Face cachée du Pape François, Max Milo, 2016.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Qui suis-je pour juger ?» (french version) / « Who I’m to judge ? » (english version) and in several other chapters of the book as background information.

Pope John XXIII (Jean XXIII)

– Loris Capovilla, Mes années avec le Pape Jean XXIII, Conversations avec Ezio Bols, ed. des Béatitudes, 2014 ; Pier Carpi, Les Prophéties du pape Jean XXIII, L’avenir de l’humanité jusqu’en 2033, Presses du Châtelet, 2013.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « L’Amour d’amitié » (french version) / « Love Friendship» (english version).

Pope John Paul I (Jean-Paul I)

◊ See also : Ireland ; John Magee.
– On John Paul I, see : Bernard Lecomte, Les Secrets du Vatican, Perrin, 2009 ; reed. Tempus, 2011 (see pp. 209-226). See also : Corrado Augias, I Segreti del Vaticano, Mondadori, 2010 (trans in French : “Jean-Paul I : Un si court règne”, in Dans les Secrets du Vatican, De Pierre à François, L’incroyable histoire des papes, L’Express, Thema, Jan 2016).
– On the death of John Paul I, see Gerald Posner, I banchieri di Dio, Newton Company Editori ; trans. in English, God’s Bankers, A History of Money and Power at the Vatican, Simon & Schuster, 2015, chap 20, pp. 256-278. See also : David Yallop, In God’s Name, An investigation into the murder of pope John Paul I, 1986 ; trans. in French : Le Pape doit mourir, Enquête sur la mort suspecte de Jean-Paul Ier, 1986, reed. Nouveau Monde Editions, 2013.
– I have read and also use: “Jean-Paul Ier, Un si court règle…” in “Dans les coulisses du Vatican”, L’Express, Special Issue, Jan./March 2016, pp. 144-1147.
– On the figure of the personal assistant of Pope John Paul I, Mgr John Magee, who was critized for gays’ bad conduct and who was later harshly critized in numerous sexual abuse cases see : Henry McDonald, “Irish report on child sex abuse berates Vatican”, The Guardian, July 13, 2011 ; and also from The Guardian in 2010 ; see also the official report of the Cloyne Diocese Report by the National Board for Safeguarding Children in the Catholic Church in Ireland, which mentions John Magee’s homosexual desires on § 26.4, p. 320 : see here.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Pope John Paul II (Jean-Paul II)

◊ See also : Cardinal Sodano (Angelo) ; Cardinal Casaroli (Agostino) ; Carinal Silvestrini ; Marcial Maciel ; Swiss Guard Triple Murders.
On John Paul II’s life : I mainly use the biography by Bernard Lecomte, Jean-Paul II, Gallimard, 2003 (a great and reliable biography, although too « official »). For a more balanced point of view, see : Carl Bernstein and Marco Politi, Sa Sainteté, Jean-Paul II et l’histoire cache de notre époque, Plon, 1996. For an even more critical view, see the biography in Italian by Giacomo Galeazzi and Ferruccio Pinotti, Wojtyla Segreto (Wojtyla Secret) and the investigation by David Yallop, The Power and the Glory : Inside the Dark Heart of Pope John Paul II’s Vatican, 2009. For images and an interesting document, I also recommend the biography by Henri Tincq, S. Jean-Paul II, L’homme de Dieu, L’Arpenteur du monde, editions Télémaque, 2016. For the official biography, told by the Vatican, see the interesting compilation of articles from the Osservatore Romano on John-Paul II : “Bienheureux”, special issue, May 1, 2011.
On Anti-gay statements by John Paul II : Early on in his papacy, John Paul II made strongly anti-gay statements, see his speech in Chicago in 1979 (speech).
On the diplomacy of Pope John Paul II : See Frédéric Le Moal, Les Divisions du pape, Le Vatican face aux dictatures, 1917-1989, Perrin (but the book unfortunately missed the bigger picture, since it does not discuss Latin America policy, ex. Chile; Casaroli is very central, but Sodano is not) ; Constance Colonna-Cesari, Dans les secrets de la diplomatie vaticane, Seuil, 2016.
On the funding of Solidarnosc : see Franca Giansoldati, Il Demonio in Vaticano I Legionari di Cristo e Il caso Maciel, Edizioni Piemme Spa, 2014, trans. in French : L’Affaire Maciel, Albin Michel, 2015 (in this influential book, Giansoldati reveals the exchange of money between Marcial Maciel and the Vatican) ; Carl Bernstein and Marco Politi, Sa Sainteté, Jean-Paul II et l’histoire cachée de notre époque, Plon, 1996 ; Gianluigi Nuzzi, Vaticano S.p.A, Chiarelettere, 2009 ; trans. in French : Sa Sainteté, Scandales au Vatican (he describes the account of the Foundation Cardinal Francis Spellan) ; or David Yallop, The Power and the Glory : Inside the Dark Heart of Pope John Paul II’s Vatican, 2009 (who suggests that more than 100 million dollars were sent to Solidarnosc by the Vatican of John-Paul II) ; see also “Dans les coulisses du Vatican”, L’Express, Special Issue, Jan./March 2016 (“Les errements des banquiers de Dieu”, pp. 152-159). On the links between Stanislaw Dziwisz and Marcial Maciel, see : John Thavis, “The Vatican diaries” who discusses Dziwisz’s contacts with the Legionaries of Christ and Marcial Maciel. In respect to the financial support of Solidarnosc by Legionaries see this article by Gazeta Wyborcza (in Polish) : the author writes: “In all probability Maciel supports Solidarnosc in Poland. That was the reason for the friendship with John Paul II. Each time his sins have been neutralized. Over and over as the new documents reached the Vatican, the old ones had been already forgotten.” In this article he writes that he made use of the following books: « La Iglesia del silencio. De mártires y pederastas », « Marcial Maciel. La historia de un criminal » and « La voluntad de no saber ». (See above : Marcial Maciel.) See also : Vatican help for communist Poland (Pomoc Watykanu dla komunistycznej Polski) : About how John Paul II supposedly sent 150 million dollars for the needs of the Church and Solidarity in Poland between 1981-1989 (source). President Lech Walesa says that Solidarity received money from the Vatican (source).
On possible cover-up of pedophilia : see Jason Berry and Gerald Renner, Vows of Silence. The Abuse of Power in the Papacy of John Paul II, Free Press, 2004 (from Jason Berry see also his anti-Pope John Paul II article : Jason Berry, “Tha Shame of John Paul II : How the Sex Abuse Scandal Stained His Papacy”, The Nation, April 27, 2011. See also : Jason Berry, “Father Marcial Maciel and the popes he stained”, Newsweek, Nov 3, 2013 ; See also an opinionated article by Edward Pentin, “The Allegations Against Cardinal Sodano”, Catholic World Report, May 4, 2011.
On Pope John Paul II and Opus Dei :see an interesting history of Opus Dei, by Joan Estruch, Saints & Schemers, Opus Dei and its paradoxes, Oxford University Press, 1995 (with long parts about John Paul II and his entourage).
Others books and articles related to John Paul II that I used : Stanislaw Dziwisz, J’ai vécu avec un Saint, Cerf, 2014 (a favorable view on the life of the pope John-Paul II by his long time assistant).
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Sacré College», « Les Légionnaires du Christ », « L’anneau de luxure », « La Croisade contre les gays », « Drôle de ménage » etc. (french version) / « The Sacred College», « The Legion of Christ », « The Ring of Lust », « The Crusade against gays », etc. (english version). This subject is alos used as background information in several chapters of the book.

Pope Paul VI (Paulo VI)

◊ See also : Macchi (Pasquale) ; Marcinkus (Paul C.) ; Villot (Jean)
– Biographies : Yves Chiron, Paul VI, Le Pape Ecartelé, Perrin, 1993 ; Jacques Duquesne, “Paul VI, Le Changement en douceur”, in Dans les Secrets du Vatican, De Pierre à François, L’incroyable histoire des papes, L’Express, Thema, Jan 2016).
On Paul VI’s secretary of State, Jean Villot, see : Antoine Wenger, Le Cardinal Jean Villot, 1905-1979, pref. René Rémond, Desclée De Brouwer, 1989. See also : Benoît Fournier, Le Cardinal Jean Villot, Secrétaire d’État de trois papes, Préface de Paul Poupard, Parole et silence, 2017.
Paul VI and the arts : Speech on the arts, June 23, 1973 (here) ; see also, among others, this interesting “Omelia di Paolo VI” on Michelangelo for the “Quinto centenario della nascita di Michelangelo”, Feb 29, 1976 (here).
On Paul VI and Jacques Maritain : Paul VI translated the book by Maritain, Trois Réformateurs : Luther, Descartes, Rousseau, Plon, 1925. According to the biography of Paul VI by Yves Chiron, Mgr Montini read this book in 1926 during a stay in Strasbourg. He wrote to Maritain in December 1926 to ask him permission to translate the book to Italian. The book was published in 1928 by Morcelliana. Mgr Montini wrote a long preface of the book (only signed “g.b.m”) in which he defends Maritain and praise a neo-Thomist theory ; he also criticized fascism (without naming it) for breaking with the Christian humanism and for being a selfish doctrine (see Yves Chiron, Paul VI, Le Pape Ecartelé, Perrin, 1993, pp. 58-59).
Paul VI and Aldo Moro, see : Official Prayer by the Pope ; on the Mediation.
On the rumor of his homosexuality, see Roger Peyrefite (above) ; see also Gérald Posner, God’s Bankers: A History of Money and Power at the Vatican, Simon and Schuster, 2015 (voir p. 174). See also the rumor made by the Archibishop Juliusz Paetz in Poland (he even sent to some people photos about a romance between himself and the future Pope, as revealed by the journalists of Gazeta Wyborcza in Poland : he showed two photos as young priest in Poznan. On the first: he stands together with Pope VI on the beach and both are in shorts and T-shirts. On the second: young Paetz is bare-chested. In this way, he suggested that he was the Pope’s lover (but Paetz’s testimony is suspicious) : see Marcin Kacki’s article in Gazeta Wyborcza : an interview with Adam Suwart, who was told the story by Paetz (other source here) ; see also the biography of Pope Paul VI by Maciej Wrzeszcz, who writes that Paetz was part of Paul VI’s entourage « at the explicit wish of the Pope himself ».
– See also the key book by Franco Bellegrandi, Nichitaroncalli. Controvita di un papa, Eiles, 2000 ; reed. Ed. Scrittori italiani e stranieri, 2009 (F. Bellangrandi was an insider at the Vatican from the end of Pius XII’s reign to the beginning of Paul VI’s. He was an “honor chamberlain” of the Sovereign Pontiff – camarieri di spada i cappa – which along with the Noble Guards were in charge of services of honor for the Pontiff: introduction of heads of State, ambassadors, or other high-level visitors, assisting the Pontiff at solemn events and private audiences. Bellegrandi has further credentials that give him credibility : when he left his post of service for the Pope, he was chosen to be a correspondent of l’Osservatore Romano, the daily paper of the Holy See. In his book, Nichitaroncalli, Controvita di un papa, Bellegrandi reports what he saw and heard during his term in the Vatican.
– Another curious “priest”, Don Luigi Villa, has also published several texts on the subject, but his credentials and his obsession with conspiracy theories give him little credibility.
– See also the strange book by a Spanish writer, Pepe Rodríguez who focuses on Freemasons and discusses the homosexuality of Paul VI with new testimonies: P. Rodríguez, Masonería al descubierto, Del mito a la realidad, Ediciones Temas de Hoy, 2006 (in spanish). See also : Pepe Rodrigues, “Espana no es diferente”, El Mundo, March 19, 1995.
– See also Paul VI Bienheureux, by Luigi Villa, ESR, 2009 (who comments on the allusions to homosexuality).
– The official denial by Paul VI at the Angelus Domini can be found here.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « The Maritain Code » & « Loving Friendship » (french version) / « The Maritain Code » & « Loving Friendship »  (english version).

Pornography in the church

– Sridhar Pappu, Internet Porn Nearly Ruined His Life. Now He Wants to Help, New York Times, July 6, 2016.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Portugal

– On Antonio Ferreira Gomez, archibishop of Porto and a dissident, anti-dictatorship figure, see : António Ferreira Gomes, Lettres au Pape : Regard de l’évêque de Porto sur l’Eglise et sur l’Histoire, 2007.
– On Policarpo : António Marujo, Jorge Wemans, José Policarpo, Uma Voz Tranquila No Palco Da Democracia, Paulinas, 2014.
– On Carlos Azevedo, former archibishop of Porto, see the article that began the scandal concerning him : “O Segredo do Bispo : Bispo Carlos Azevedo suspeito de assédio sexual », Visão, Feb 2, 2013. (The article has been discussed as not being accurate and an act of vengeance, see the book Sodoma in chapter “Drôle de ménage”). See also here.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Drôle de Ménage » (french version) / « Strange Household» (english version).

Poupard (Paul)

– French cardinal
– I read : Paul Poupard, Au Coeur du Vatican, de Jean XXIII à Jean-Paul II, Perrin, 2003.
– See also : Paul Poupard, Le Vatican, Parole et silence, 2004 ; Le Concile Vatican II, Salvator, 2012.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Le Code Maritain » (french version) / « The Maritain Code » (english version).

Przydatek (Casimiro)

– Polish Jesuit priest
– Mgr Przydatek is a Polish Jesuit. He was close to John-Paul II’s first inner circle and a friend of Mgr Stanislaw Dziwisz. His name appears in a long research on the funding of Solidarnosc by veteran journalist Fabio Marchese Ragona, Il Caso Marcinkus, Chiareletter, 2018 (pp. 118-130).
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Prostitution

– On prostitution statistics in Europe, see : TAMPEP, Sex work in Europe, A mapping of the prostitution scene in 25 European countries, 2009, 79 p.
– On legislation and prostitution, see also : Emily Bazelon, « Should Prostitution Be a Crime ? », New York Times, May 5, 2016 ;
– On escorts and gay priests (Escort Francesco from Napoli) : see Gay.IT ; La Gazzetta ; here ; here and also here.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

— Q —

Queer Theology

– Main theologians : Robert Goss (US Jesuit, openly gay), Marcela Althaus Reid (radical feminist from Argentina), André Musskopf (Brazilian Lutherian), Carlos Mendoza-Alvarez (Mexican Dominican), Luiz Carlos Susin (Brazil), Michael Brinkschröeder (Germany).
– Main bibliography : Luiz Carlos Susin, The Four Love ; Elizabeth Stuart, Gay and Lesbian Theologies ; Robert Goss: Queering Christ ; Marcela Althaus-Reid: Indecent Theology ; Mark Jordan: The Silence of Sodom ; Gerald Loughlin: Alien Sex (a good sampler with many important articles) ; Susannah Cornwall: Controversies in Queer Theology (a good introduction). I also recommend Michael Brinkschröder: Sodom als Symptom. Gleichgeschlechtliche Sexualität im christlichen Imaginären – eine religionsgeschichtliche Anamnese, Berlin-New York, 2006.
– On Bible : Deryn Guest, Robert E. Goss, Mona West, Thomas Bohache (eds.): The Queer Bible Commentary, 2nd ed., 2007 (a good overview of queer research on the Bible).
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Dissidents » (french version) / « Dissidents » (english version).



— R —



Ratzinger (Georg)

– Older brother of Joseph Ratzinger.
◊ See also : Pope Benedict XVI ; Regensburg Sexual Abuse Scandal.
– Several mentions of Georg Ratzinger in interviews and biographies by his brother, Pope Benedict XVI. See : Benedict XVI, Lumière du monde, Le pape, l’église et les signes du temps, conversation with Peter Seewald, 2010 ; Benedict XVI, Dernières conversations with Peter Seewald, Fayard, 2016 ; Bernard Lecomte, Benoît XVI, Perrin, 2002, reed. 2011 ; Andrea Tornielli, Benoît XVI, La Biographie, Citadelle, 2005.
– On the Regensburg sexual abuse scandal, see : Melissa Eddy, « ‘Culture of Silence’ Abetted Abuse of at Least 547 German Choir Boys, Inquiry Finds », New York Times, July 18, 2017 ; “547 enfants victimes d’abus dans un choeur catholique en Allemagne”, Le Monde, July 18, 2017.
– On the possible implication of Georg Ratzinger, see Liberation.
– On the sexual abuse scandal in Germany, see : Thomas Wieder, “Pédophilie : l’Église allemande honteuse”, Le Monde, Sept 15, 2018.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in several chapters of the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Ratzinger (Joseph)

◊ See Pope Benedict XVI

Re (Giovanni Battista)

– Italian cardinal
– Polemic about abortion being worse than rape : see Nouvel obs, 2009.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Regensburg Sex Abuse Scandal

◊ See : Pope Benedict XVI ; Georg Ratzinger ; Germany ; Cardinal Müller ; Thurn und Taxis (Gloria Von) ; Regensburg sex abuse scandal.
– Alison Smale, “Over 200 Members of German Choir Were Abused, Investigator Says”, New York Times, Jan 8, 2016 ; Melissa Eddy, « ‘Culture of Silence’ Abetted Abuse of at Least 547 German Choir Boys, Inquiry Finds », New York Times, July 18, 2017 ; “547 enfants victimes d’abus dans un chœur catholique en Allemagne”, Le Monde, July 17, 2018. (Georg Ratzinger, brother of Pope Benedict XVI, said he was unaware of the abuses, see here).
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in Part IV on Benedict XVI.

Reig Pla (Juan Antonio)

– Spanish Bishop
– Reig Pla in favor of reparative therapy, see : El Periódico, 12 avril 2012 ; El Mundo, 25 April 2012 ; A part of his website is about « Hope and Homosexuality », where he recommends reparative therapy (here).
– Reig Pla against Pope Francis on « Who am I to judge », see El País, 14 mars 2015
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Rouco» (french & english version).

Reparative Therapy (Conversion Therapy for Gays)

◊ See : Anatrella.
– The main scientific book on the subject in Italy (and a work against reparative therapy) is the book by Vittorio Lingiardi and Nicola Nardelli, Guiding Lines for the psychological treatment and psychoterapy of LGB persons”, see here. See also : New Italian lesbian, gay and bisexual psychotherapy guidelines, a review (here) ; Negative Attitudes to Lesbians and Gay Men : Persecutors and Victims (here ) ; Measure of internalized sexual stigma for lesbians and gay men : a new scale (here) ; Psychoanalytic attitudes towards homosexuality (here). (By the same author, see his book : Vittorio Lingiardi, Citizen Gay, Famiglie, diritti negati e salute mentale, Il Saggiatore, 2007 : see here).
– See Richard Sandomir, “Joseph Nicolosi, Advocate of Conversion Therapy for Gays, Dies at 70”, New York Times, March 16, 2017.
Tonino Cantelmi, founder and president of the Italian Association of Catholic Psychologists and Psychiatrists (AIPPC, www.aippc.net) was accused of homophobia by the newspaper “Liberazione” (the journalist Davide Varì pretended to be gay for six months): source. Cantelmi later reporter what happened to the authority and denied everything: “I’m not so stupid or so criminal to do therapies that are not scientifically proven” (source). In an article from 2008, Tonino Cantelmi wrote about egodystonic sexual orientation” (The gender identity or sexual preference is not in doubt, but the individual wishes he was different because of associated psychological and behavioral disorders, and may seek treatment in order to change it) and about what can be done to help the patients (source). In 2015, Tonino Cantelmi wrote about “gender theory” (see: here and here). AIPPC signed a petition asking the President of Italy and the Prime Minister of Italy to ban “gender ideology from the schools” (source).
In 2015, AIPPC took part in a rally in Rome in favor of the “natural family” (source). Cantelmi curated the book “Omosessualità e psicoterapie. Percorsi , problematiche e prospettive, centered on egodystonic sexual orientation with articles from Giorgia Brambilla, Bruno Callieri, Davide Dettore, Antonella Montano, Antonio Onofri, Simonetta Putti, Liliana Secchiaroli, Warren Throckmorton, Barbara Turella, Mark Yarhouse (here). See also : Tonino Cantelmi and Emiliano Lambiase, Omosessualità e psicoterapie – Percorsi, problematiche e prospettive, Franco Angeli, 2010 (source).
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Renaissance (Italian Renaissance)

◊ See also : Michelangelo ; Leonardo da Vinci ; Caravaggio ; Art.
– I used Peter Burke, La Renaissance européenne, Editions du Seuil, 2000 ; Eugenio Garin, ed., L’homme de la Renaissance, Editions du seuil, 1990.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Report of Julián Herranz, Salvatore De Giorgi & Jozef Tomko

◊ See : Vatileaks I ; Vatileaks II ; Pope Benedict XVI.
– Report in 2012
– Jozef Tomko, On Missionary roads (his memoirs REF).
– Emiliano Fittipaldi, Lussuria, Peccati, scandali e tradimenti di una Chiesa fatta di uomini, Feltrinelli, 2017.
– On the supposed transmission of the Herranz, De Giorgi and Tomko report during Pope Francis’s visit to the Pope Emeritus on March 23, 2013, see this video where the alleged report is supposed to be in the box (here) ; see also the photo here in this article : Andy Borowitz, “Pope Francis tells Pope Benedict to stop rolling his eyes in meetings”, New Yorker, May 2, 2013 : ; and “Pope Francis and Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI together at Castel Gandolfo”, The Guardian, March 23, 2013.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Vatileaks » (french & english version).

Ricca (Battista)

– A former Santa Sede diplomat and the Director of Domus Sanctae Marthae (the Pope’s personal house).
– A representative of Pope Francis to the Vatican Bank and the head of the Pope’s houses (Domus Sanctae Marthae and also Domus Internationalis Paulus VI and Domus Romana Sacerdotalis), Battista Ricca is a “Monsignore” but not yet an archibishop nor a nuncio (even though he was a diplomat for a long time in Switzerland and Uruguay). He is known to be close to Pope Francis.
– On the Ricca scandal : Ricca met Patrick Haari, Captain of the Swiss Guard in Uruguay, and they became close. It looks like everybody knew about the relationship and in 2000, when the Polish nuncio Janusz Bolonek went to Montevideo and was informed about what happened, he informed the Vatican and asked that Haari be removed from his job. Nothing happened. In 2001, Ricca was beaten in a gay club in Bulevar Artigas and needed to be rescued and taken back to the Nunciature. Later that year, Ricca got stuck in an elevator at the Nunciature and when the firefighter came to rescue him, they found he was with a young man later identified by the police. After that episode, thanks to nuncio Bolonek, Ricca was moved away from the Nunciature and Haari was fired. Thanks to Cardinal Angelo Sodano, Ricca was transferred to the Apostolic Nunciature of Trinidad and Tobago, where he stayed till 2004. See : L’Espresso, July 18th 2003 ; ‘Gay romance’ with Swiss soldier shocks Vatican (here) ; Mons. Ricca and his secret “little habit” hidden from the Pope (here) ; “Who made the dossier about mons. Ricca? Bertone and his men”, according to L’Espresso. See also : Emiliano Fittipaldi, Lussuria, Peccati, scandali e tradimenti di una Chiesa fatta di uomini, Feltrinelli, 2017
He was criticized after a 2013 article in the Italian weekly L’espresso that made public his homosexuality. The article claimed that Ricca, among other things, had a homosexual relationship with a Captain of the Swiss Guard when they both lived in Uruguay between 1999 and 2000. The article has since disappeared from L’Espresso’s website, but some foreign media also published articles about the matter, e.g., the Mexican politics magazine Proceso. The British Telegraph also took up the subject; their article enumerates some of the other incidents in Ricca’s past life. On one occasion in 2001 in Urugua,y he allegedly got stuck in a lift. When firemen rescued him, they found a young man trapped in the elevator with him. On another occasion in the same year, the priest was reportedly beaten up in a gay bar and had to call for help, arriving back at the nunciature, the Vatican embassy, with bruises on his face. The alleged scandal has been particularly embarrassing because Mgr Ricca is a trusted confidante of the Pope. As well as having a supervisory role within the Vatican bank, which is officially known as the Institute for the Works of Religion, he is also the director of the Vatican residence where the Pope has chosen to live, having shunned the sumptuous apostolic apartments occupied his by predecessor, Benedict XVI. Regarding this affair, it would also have been what sparked Pope Francis’ famous phrase about gays, “who am I to judge?”. Supposedly referring to sin, not saying that it is any less sinful, but rather that it is not up to par with a crime, such as pederasty, according to this article in The Federalist.
– See also on the Ricca affair : Marco Politi, Francesco tra i lupi, Gius, Laterza & Figli, 2014 ; trans. in French : François parmi les loups, ed. Philip Rey, 2015 ; French paperback (updated version) : François parmi les loups, Points, Seuil, 2015 (see : pp. 216 and 257-258) ; Sandro Magister, « La lobby gay », L’Espresso, n°29, July, 19, 2013 (see especially : « Il prelato della lobby gay »). See also : John Allen Jr., « Vatican Denies Scandal Report on Vatican bank prelate », National Catholic Reporter, Jul., 19, 2013 ; « New Vatican Bank Official reportedly part of “gay lobby” », Catholic News Agency, July 18, 2013 ; Emiliano Fittipaldi, Lussuria, Feltrinelli, 2017 (Fittipaldi develops the case of Battista Ricca and how he managed to make a career in spite of his behavior).
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Qui suis-je pour juger ? » & « Les diplomates du pape » (french version) / « Who I’m to judge ?» & « The pope’s diplomats » (english version).

Rimbaud (Arthur)

– French poet.
◊ See Claudel ; Ratzinger.
– For the poetry and letters of Rimbaud, I mainly use Oeuvres complètes, Bibliothèque de la Pléiade, Gallimard (2009’s edition). See also : Rimbaud, Poésies. Une saison en enfer, Illuminations, Poésie/Gallimard, 1999 (Préface de René Char ; ed. Louis Forestier) ; Rimbaud, Je ne suis pas venu ici pour être heureux, Correspondance, edition by Jean-Luc Steinmetz, GF, Flammarion, 2015 ; and Arthur Rimbaud/Paul Verlaine, Un concert d’enfers, Vies et poésies, Gallimard, Quarto, 2017.
– For an analysis of his poetry : Yves Bonnefoy, Notre besoin de Rimbaud, La Librairie du XXIème siècle, Seuil, 2009.
– On Une saison en enfer : Yoshikazu Nakaji, Combat spirituel ou immense dérision ? Essai d’analyse textuelle d’Une saison en enfer, José Corti, 1987 ; Arthur Rimbaud, Une saison en enfer, édition critique de Pierre Brunel, José Corti, 1987.
– On the life of Rimbaud : Jean-Jacques Lefrère, Arthur Rimbaud, Fayard, 2001 (the « biographie de référence ») ; Enid Starkie, Rimbaud, Flammarion, 1982 ; Benjamin Fondane, Rimbaud le voyou, Non Lieu, 2010 ; Pierre Petitfils, Rimbaud, Julliard, 1982. I’ve also used : Jean-Baptiste Baronian, ed., Dictionnaire Rimbaud, coll. Bouquins, Robert Laffont, 2014. See also : Edmund White, Rimbaud, Rivages, reed 2013 and the astonishing Pierre Michon, Rimbaud le fils, Gallimard, Folio, 1991 (for Pierre Michon, Rimbaud is « un de nos Evangiles, à présent »).
– On Catholicism, Rimbaud and Claudel (in the beginning of 20th century, Rimbaud was at the center of a battle to « recuperate » him as Catholic writer and deny his homosexuality, when, at the same time, surrealists, André Breton and Louis Aragon among others, and homosexuals writers as André Gide and Jean Cocteau tried to make him their icon). On this long and complex debate see : Paul Claudel, « Vers et proses », préface aux Oeuvres, Mercure de France, 1912 (initially published in La Nouvelle Revue Française, october 1912). Stéphane Barsacq, Rimbaud, Celuilà qui créera Dieu, Points Seuil, 2014. See also : « Rimbaud catholique », in Isabelle Rimbaud, Reliques, Mercure de France, 1921 (sister of the poet ; see the text : « Rimbaud catholique »). On Rimbaud and Aragon (and dadaism, surrealism), see : Aragon, Pour expliquer ce que j’étais, Gallimard, 1989 (pp. 49-65). See also on Rimbaud and Breton : Maurice Nadeau, Histoire du surréalisme, Points-Seuil 1964, pp. 40-41 and Rimbaud, Je ne suis pas venu ici pour être heureux, Correspondance, op. cit., pp. 18-19.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in several chapters of the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Rivera (Norberto)

– Cardinal and archibishop of Mexico City.
– Norberto Rivera has taken very vocal stances against homosexuality, especially in the ongoing debate about legalizing same-sex marriage in the whole country. In an article that has now been taken off the web, he wrote that “man’s anus is not meant to receive, only to expell” and that “lesbic sex can be a source for the contagion for sexually transmitted diseases”, which would make “homosexuality a matter of public health” since “homosexuals that engage in some sort of sexual relation would contract some STD”. Other newspapers took the same text and commented on it.
– However, Norberto Rivera is also accused of a being light on the sexual abuses’ cover-up. On June 2, 2017, Alberto Athié Gallo, a former priest, and others denouced Norberto Rivera to the Mexican justice for covering up a matter of sexual abuse concerning at least fifteen priests. See this article in La Jornada (Norberto Rivera might also have played a role in covering up sexual accusations against Marcial Maciel, but he has denied any wrongdoings. see : ◊ Maciel). Until now, the Mexican justice has not acted (source).
– Pope Francis criticized harshly Cardinal Rivera for his homophobia (source).
– Sexual abuse cover-up : Cardinal Norberto Rivera is mentioned on the “dirty dozen” list edited by the Survivors’ Network of those Abused by Priests (SNAP) (source here). See also : Emiliano Ruiz Parra, « Carlos Aguiar Retes et les élections de 2018 », Gatopardo, Dec 7, 2017.
– The opposition between Carlos Aguiar Retes, the new archbishop of Mexico (appointed by Pope Francis) and Roberto Rivera (close to Sodano) and how Aguiar Retes is appointed to break off with Rivera’s years : W Radio ; Nación ; Grupo Formula ; Animal Politico ; Milenio ; Vanguardia ; Proceso ; see also here.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Les Légionnaires du Christ » (french version) / « The Legion of Christ » (english version).

Romeo (Paolo)

– Former archibishop of Palermo.
An Italian cardinal (Palermo, Sicilia), former nuncio in Colombia and in Italy. A very homophobic cardinal.
– See : La Repubblica ; Corriere.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Rouco Varela (Antonio María)

– Cardinal, Spain
◊ See Spain ; John Paul II.
– On the life of Cardinal Rouco Varela, I read and use extensively in my own work the book by José Manuel Vidal, Rouco, La Biografía no autorizada, Ediciones B, 2014.
– On Rouco’s “resignation” requested by Francis, see this well-informed article : José Manuel Vidal, “Rouco Varela no quiere irse”, El Mundo, August 3, 2014 :
– On the history of Opus Dei, see Joan Estruch, Saints & Schemers, Opus Dei and its paradoxes, Oxford University Press, 1995 (with long parts about Spain).
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Rouco» (french version) / « Rouco» (english version).

Russia

– Studies on the Church and gay persons : see the interview with Igor Kovalevsky (Игорь Ковалевский), in Gazeta.ru (he explains that gays are not a central question in Russia). In another media outlet, an important scandal about gay parties in seminaries in 2014 (here).
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.



— S —


Sachs (Maurice)

– French Writer.
Le Sabbat. Souvenirs d’une jeunesse orageuse, Corrêa publisher, 1946, by Maurice Sachs is still an interesting novel (see the chapter on Meudon and Maritain’s group).
– See also : Henri Raczymov, Maurice Sachs ou les travaux forcés de la frivolité, Gallimard, 1988 (see also the review of this book by Angelo Rinaldi, « Judas l’obscur », L’Express, 28 octobre 1988).
– On Maritain/Sachs, see their correspondence ; and see Jean-Luc Barré, Jacques et Raïssa Maritain, op. cit., pp. 318-326.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Le Code Maritain » (french version) / « Maritain’s Code » (english version).

Saint Gallen or St. Gallen (Group)

◊ Walter Kasper ; Godfried Danneels ; CEI ; Pope Benedict XVI.
– An informal group of liberal bishops and cardinals who met in St. Gallen (Switzerland) from 1995-2006. Run by the Bishop of St. Gallen, Mgr Ivo Fürer, this group was created by the Germans Bishops Walter Kasper, Karl Lehman, Oskar Saier and the Belgian Cardinal Godfried Danneels. Some key liberal figures attended this annual meeting : Cardinal Ad van Luyn (Netherlands), Basil Hume (UK), Cardinals Carlo Maria Martini and Achille Silvestrini from Itlay, but also José da Cruz Policarpo from Lisbon, Cormac Murphy-O’Connor (UK) and Cardinal Lubomyr Husar from Ukraine.
– About the St. Gallen group, see : Tom Kington, “Conservative opposition to Pope Francis spurs talk of a schism in the Catholic Church”, Los Angeles Times, April 17, 2017 ; see also on the same St. Gallen group, the critical article by Anne Dolhein for Reinformation. For a critical view, see : Marcantonio Colonna, The Dictator Pope, The inside story of the Francis Papacy, Regnery Publishing ; Revised, Updated edition (April 23, 2018) : see chap. 1, “The St. Gallen Mafia”, pp. 1-20 (the book is a critic of Pope Francis). See also “The St Gallen Group Confirmed”, LifeSite, Sept 29, 2015.
– See also the biography of Godfried Danneels : Jürgen Mettepenningen & Karim Schelkens and Godfried Danneels, Confidences d’un cardinal, Racine, 2009 (interviewed by Christain Laporte ; he discusses the St. Gallen group)
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « La CEI» (french version) / « CEI » (english version).

Saint Sebastian (Martyr and myth)

– Christian Saint and Martyr (circa 288 AD), Saint Sebastian became a popular male saint, especially among gay people. There exist hundreds of paintings and sculptures about the myth, commonly depicting him tied to a tree and shot with arrows.
– The writer and French Academician Dominique Fernandez wrote a long essay on “Saint Sebastian” and the gay mythology around him : see Le Rapt de Ganymède, Grasset, 1989 (“Saint Sébastien, héros tutélaire”, pp. 149-154), which I used for my description of Saint Sebastian.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Sandoval Iñiguez (Juan)

– Mexican Cardinal
◊ See also : Mexico ; Marcial Maciel ; Norberto Rivera.
– Juan Sandoval Íñiguez was the Archbishop of Guadalajara. He is retired and still a cardinal.
– See also the interesting new translation in English of The Book of Gomorrah and St. Peter Damian’s Struggle Against Ecclesiastical Corruption, 2015, preface by Cardinal Juan Sandova Iñiguez, Publisher: Ite Ad Thomam Books and Media, 2015.
– On the “Casa de rehabilitación de pederastas” in Tlaquepaque, see this interesting investigation by the Mexican press : here and here.
– Criticism on sexual abuses cover up : here.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Les Légionnaires du Christ » (french version) / « Legions of Christ » (english version).

Sandri (Leonardo)

– Cardinal from Argentina ; Prefect of the Congregation for the Oriental Church
◊ See: Argentina ; Héctor Aguer ; Cardinal Sodano, Angelo ; Pio Laghi.
– Born in Buenos Aires (Argentina) in 1943, Leonardo Sandri was ordained priest by the Archbishop of Buenos Aires Juan Carlos Aramburu and soon became his private secretary before leaving for Rome (Aramburu was later known as a supporter to the Argentine military regime). Since then, Sandri has built his entire career in the Roman Curia. He was nuncio to Venezuela and, after a brief stay in Mexico, Pope John Paul II appointed him Substitute of the Secretariat of State, Angelo Sodano’s right-hand man. He was the voice of John Paul II when the Pope’s health declined. On April 2, 2005, he announced John Paul’s death. In 2007, Sandri was elevated to cardinal and since then he has headed the Congregation for the Oriental Churches.
– He had close ties to Pio Laghi, questioned for his role as apostolic nuncio during the Argentine dictatorship. When Laghi was assigned to the nunciature in Washington DC, Sandri was the secretary of the mission.
– In Argentina, until Pope Francis, Sandri acted as the most conservative wing of the Argentine Church’s main contact within the Vatican. Archbishop Héctor Aguer was among his closest friends. Sandri was considered one of Bergoglio’s main opponents in the local Church. In the papal conclave of 2005, Sandri told Bishop Justo Laguna, alluding to Bergoglio: “You better pray to Saint Joseph so that he is not the Pope.” In the 2013 conclave, Sandri was considered a front-runner.
– The banker Francisco Trusso – related to Aguer and convicted of fraud in a financial scandal that also involved the Archdiocese of Buenos Aires – took refuge in Sandri’s family summerhouse when he was a fugitive from justice.
The Cardinal was also a supporter of the Peronist ex-President and current Senator Carlos Menem, convicted on charges of corruption and arms trafficking, and his ambassador to the Vatican, the lobbyist Esteban Caselli. (Olga Wornat, Nuestra Santa Madre, Buenos Aires, Ediciones B, 2002.)
– Sexual abuse cover up : Cardinal Leonardo Sandri has been criticized in the Viganò Memo in August 2018 (here the original in Italian ; in English ; in French) ; he is also mentionned on the “dirty dozen” list edited by the Survivors’ Network of those Abused by Priests (SNAP) (source here).
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Buenos Aires » (french and english version).

Sarah (Robert)

– Cardinal
◊ Africa.
– On the life of Robert Sarah in Africa and then in Rome, see : Jeune Afrique ; Le Figaro ; JDD.
– About the links between Cardinal Sarah and the dissident movement of Mgr Lefebvre see : here.
Sarah and Africa, see: Robert Calderisi, Earthly Mission, The Catholic Church and world development, Yale University Press, 2013 (pp. 80, 81, 234).
On homosexuality : Speech by Cardinal Sarah at the 2015 Synod on the “two beasts” evil, see the full transcript. In this text he denounces the “two beasts” of Evil, “Daesh and homosexuality”. See also: Jérôme Cordelier, “Mgr Sarah, l’Africain qui veut devenir pape”, Le Point, March 28, 2016. Sarah in favor of “conversion therapies” : see Homme Nouveau ; Ouest France ; and La Croix. See also this book by Daniel Mattson, Why I Don’t Call Myself Gay, Ignatus Press, 2017, with a foreword by Cardinal Robert Sarah. The cardinal also wrote the preface to Marguerite Peeters, Le Gender, Une norme mondiale ? Pour un discernement, éd. Mame, 2013 (pp. 1-6) (See also : Marguerite Peeters, La mondialisation de la revolution culturelle occidentale, Institute for Intercultural Dialogue Dynamics).
AIDS : Data about AIDS in Guinea, see: USAID.
– About Cardinal Sarah in Regensburg with Princess Mariae Gloria von Thurn und Taxis for book presentation (with Nicolas Diat) and with the main speaker Cardinal Müller. In the photo, there is Joseph Ratzinger’s brother, Georg Ratzinger, in the wheelchair, as well as the priest Wilhelm Imkamp. The preface to the German version was written by Georg Gänswein. (Source here).
– See also, Michael O’loughlin, “Knights of Columbus Spends Millions to Fight LGBT Rights”, Advocate, Jan 28, 2014 ; on the same issue, see National Catholic Reporter and New Ways Ministry.
– Robert Sarah answers his detractors in the right-wing Catholic newspaper L’Homme Nouveau : here.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Les diplomates du pape » (french version) / « Pope’s Diplomats» (english version).

Schönborn (Christoph)

– Austrian Cardinal, Archibishop of Vienna.
◊ See : Cardinal Groër ; Cardinal Sodano.
– Archbishop Christoph Schönborn has been a liberal figure and a rather gay-friendly person. See his books : C. Schönborn, Le Regard du bon Pasteur (a longer version of Antonio Spadaro’s newspaper interview, 2015) ; C. Schönborn, La Vie dans le Christ, 2003 ; Une Vie Réussie, 2009. See also this article.
–Cardinal Groër has been accused of multiple sexual abuses, beginning in 1995. In an interview with Austrian Catholic news agency Kauthpress, Cardinal Schönborn of Vienna said in 2010 that Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger had attempted to convince Pope John Paul II to initiate the investigation against Groër but that Cardinal Angelo Sodano had blocked his attempt to investigate Groër’s activities (multiple press clippings from The Independent, Famille Chrétienne, Catholic Herald, The Guardian, etc.). An investigation by Hubertus Czernin led to the claim in Czernin’s book, Das Buch Groer, that Groër had abused more than 2,000 young men. Groër died in 2003. Sources : Independent ; Famille Chrétienne ; Telegraph ; The Guardian.
– See also the book about the Groër story : Hubertus Czernin, Das Buch Groer : Eine Kirchencrhokik, Dokumentation, 1998.
Schönborn vs. Sodano : On the attacks by Cardinal Schonborn against Sodano for his actions on sexual abuse: Rachel Donadio, « In Rare Memo, Vatican rebukes Cardinal », New York Times, June 28, 2010 ; see also this article in 2010 where Andrea Tornelli refers to the criticisms by Cardinal Christoph Schoenborn against Sodano on the protection of Cardinal Hans Hermann Groer. (See also Cath.ch).
Schönborn on the issues of family and homosexuality: Antonio Spadaro, “Entretien avec le cardinal Schönborn sur Amoris Laetitia”, La Civiltà Cattolica, Oct 31, 2016, I (source).
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Dissidents » (french & english version).

Second World War (The)

– The Vatican and Homosexuality during the war.
– Venturi (Pietro Tacchi). Venturi, a Pro-Mussolini Jesuit priest and gay anti-Semite, see David Kertzer, The Pope and Mussolini : The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe, Random House, 2016. See also : Daniel Cosacchi and Eric Martin, ed., The Berrigan Letters : Personal Correspondence Between Daniel and Philip Berrigan, Orbis, 2016 ; Kevin Madigan will also publish a book on Tacchi Venturi (to be published). See also : Garry Wills, « Jesuits Admirable and Execrable », New York Review of Books, Feb. 9, 2017.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Seminaries and pontifical colleges

– On the gay life in seminars, see Andrew Sullivan, “Gay Priests and the lives they no longer want to hide”, New York Magazine, Jan 21, 2019.
– On the exclusion of homosexuals from seminaries see : Isabelle de Gaulmyn, “Rome refuse l’ordination d’homosexuels”, La Croix, Nov 23, 2005 ; Marie Malzac, “Rome publie le nouveau programme des séminaires”, La Croix, Dec 8, 2016 : ; see also, “Gay Seminarians Face Purge” (here) ; Julie Zauzmer, “The Vatican reaffirms its position suggesting gay men should not be priests”, Washington Post, Dec 7, 2016.
– On a slighty more open official text from the Vatican, see : Congrégation pour les instituts de vie consacrée et les sociétés de vie apostoliques / Directives sur la formation dans les instituts religieux (§ 39) : source here.
– Pope Francis and the gay seminarists : “If there is any doubt about homosexuality, better not let them enter the seminary”, May 2018 (source).
– On the debate on gay seminarists in Spain : Luis Argüello, bishop and spokesperson of the Spanish Bishops Conference, reacting to Pope Francis’ document « The Gift of the Priestly Vocation », forbidding the admission of homosexuals, followed the advice on it without knowing it would be impossible in Spain given its anti-discrimination law. On Argüello’s original words: see Efe ; on his rectification, see El Pais ; for an Argüello’s profile, see El Pais. (The article says Argüello’s election is part of Francis’ renovation of the Spanish Bishops Conference (he is ‘open to the new ecclesial times’), he was ordained as a priest at 33 after studying law, but he has the mind of a man born in 1953 in a small rural town in rural Spain.)
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Les Séminaristes » (french version) / « Seminarians » (english version).

Sepe (Crescenzio)

– Italian Cardinal and Archbishop of Naples,
◊ See: Vatileaks ; Francesco Mangiacapra
– The Cardinal-Archbishop of Naples has been mentioned by the press in a possible scandal when he was the prefect of Propaganda Fide : see Il Fatto Quotidiano ; Linkiesta ; Il Fatto Quotidiano ; Il 24. See also here ; here and here.
– He has been publicly suspected of having covered up cases of pedophile priests : In 2014, a victim of abuse wrote a letter to the Pope saying he was repeatedly abused by his religion teacher, Mons. S. M., since 1989, when he was 13. He said that Crescenzio Sepe knew about it and didn’t do anything to remove the priest or punish him. (See Napoli Repubblica).
– In 2018, he commented on the dossier made by Francesco Mangiacapra saying “Those who made mistakes needs to pay” (here).
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Roma Termini» & « Vatileaks » (french version) / « Roma Termini» & « Vatileaks » (english version).

Sexual Abuse Scandals

◊ See also: Maciel (Marcial) ; Chile ; Argentina ; Gröer ; United States ; United Nations ; Vatican Sexual Scandals etc.
General sources : Emiliano Fittipaldi, Lussuria, Peccati, scandali e tradimenti di una Chiesa fatta di uomini, Feltrinelli, 2017 ; Cécile Chambraud, “Vatican, La guerre est declarée”, Le Monde, April, 16-17, 2017. Corrado Augias, I Segreti del Vaticano, Mondadori, 2010 (trans in French : “Le Saint-Siège face à la pédophilie”, in Dans les Secrets du Vatican, De Pierre à François, L’incroyable histoire des papes, L’Express, Thema, Jan 2016).
“Dirty Dozen” or “douze salopards”: List of the 12 cardinals listed by SNAP for sexual abuse, cover-ups of sexual abuse, or critical speeches against victims (“some were placed on the list because of their public remarks related to the abuse scandal”, SNAP said) : CNN ; Le Point ; SNAP Website.
United States : On the US Sexual Abuse Scandals : the website Bishop Accountability provides a rich documentation and a list of hundreds of cases with the names of the people accused or condemned ; it is also useful to read National Catholic Reporter, a Catholic newspaper which is well-documented and trustworthy ; finally SNAP, an association of victims has a lot of information :
Canada : Regarding Cardinal Marc Ouellet cover-ups : See Radio Canada.
– For other countries, see alphabetical country entries
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in several chapters of the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Silvestrini (Achille)

– Italian cardinal
◊ See also : Cardinal Casaroli ; Cardinal Angelo Sodano ; John-Paul II.
– Achille Silvestrini (born in 1923) was a close deputy and protégé of the late Cardinal Secretary of State Agostino Casaroli. In charge of the Vatican’s relations with states, he was, basically, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs for the Holy See from 1976 to 1988. When Casaroli had to retire, Silvestrini was supposed to become Cardinal Secretary of State. Casaroli launched a huge campaign to have his protégé appointed, but John-Paul II favored Angelo Sodano instead.
– On the financial scandal that might have implicated Casaroli and Mgr. Silvestrini, see : “Dans les coulisses du Vatican”, L’Express, Special Issue, Jan./March 2016 (“Les errements des banquiers de Dieu”, pp. 152-159).
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Sacré College » (french version) / « The Sacred College » (english version).

Simeon (Marco)

– A lay Vatican figure, former director of Rai Vaticano and one of the leaders of the Catholic movement « Il Cammino ». In 2010, he was cited in the Propaganda Fide scandal (system of “Grandi Eventi”, under inquiry by the Italian authorities for the works for the La Maddalena G8, the 2009 World Aquatics Championships and other big events in Italy). He has worked with Cardinals Sodano, Bagnasco and Bertone, and was close to Stanisław Dziwisz (he was one of the few who had access to the apartment of John Paul II when he was still alive). In 2013, he had to stop the rumors that said that he was Bertone’s secret son. See also : here ; and also here.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Sodano (Angelo)

– Cardinal Secretary of State under John Paul II
◊ See: Bergoglio (Jorge); Sandri, Leonardo; Argentina; Héctor Aguer ; Chile ; Vatican Sexual Scandals; Benedict XVI; John-Paul II; Stanislaw Dziwitz; Silva Henríquez, Raúl; Karadima, Fernando; Medina, Jorge.
Archives : On Angelo Sodano I’ve mainly worked on archives, especially the US unclassified records about the Chilean Catholic Church during the Pinochet dictatorship. Since the Church was a central issue for US diplomacy and the CIA, much information has been collected. These archives are available at the Museo de la Memoria in Santiago de Chile.
Biography : I use Christophe Dickès, ed., Dictionnaire du Vatican et du Saint-Siège, Robert Laffont, Bouquins, 2013 (see: Sodano).
General profile. Published in 2003, this article by the editors of Reflexión y liberación suggests that Angelo Sodano, Secretary of State of the Vatican from 1990 to 2006, is a crucial actor to look at in order to understand the resignation of Pope Benedict XVI. Sodano was closely linked to the Legionaries of Christ, a religious group that came under formal scrutiny under Pope Benedict XVI after he declared the leader of that religious order, the Mexican Marical Maciel, guilty of the charges of pederasty that had haunted Maciel for decades. Sodano is also mentioned in relation to the finances of the Vatican. Sodano headed the Vatican Commission for economic matters at a time of scandal. Ten days after the Pope stepped down from the Chair of St. Peter, a friend of Sodano’s became the head of the Vatican bank, formally known as the Institute of Religious Works (IOR), in spite of criticism that he was involved with the weapons industry. Without making any straight accusations, the article gives the reader enough elements to suppose Sodano played a defining role in the resignation of Pope Benedict XVI.
Homilies : A selection of Angelo Sodano’s homilies has been published in Verso le Origini, una genealogia episcopale, Libreria Editrice Vaticana ; they also are available online.
Chile (1977-1988) : In Nov. 1977, Pope Paul VI appointed Sodano apostolic nuncio to Chile on the fourth anniversary of Augusto Pinochet’s dictatorship. He stayed in the country for a decade, until 1988, two years before Pinochet left power. Secretary of State Agostino Casaroli entrusted him with the mission of restoring unity within the Chilean Church hierarchy and “to prod the government of Chile towards greater respect for human rights,” according to a 1978 US declassified cable from their embassy in Rome. • Upon arriving, Sodano found a very complex scenario: the Chilean Church was divided and, in parallel, the political and humanitarian situation of the country was alarming. Part of the ecclesiastical hierarchy, commanded by Cardinal Raúl Silva Henríquez, Archbishop of Santiago, was increasingly confronting Pinochet’s regime for its human rights situation. Silva had founded the Vicariate of Solidarity – the main Chilean organization in defense of the victims – and, in practice, led the pubic opposition to the regime. Another sector of the Church was pro-Pinochet, supporting conservative social policies and the struggle against Communism. • Sodano’s inclination in favor of the pro-government wing quickly became evident (See : Rafael Otano, Nueva crónica de la transición, Santiago de Chile, LOM, 2016, 325-241). “The delicate balance of power is tipped toward the center-right by the papal nuncio Angelo Sodano, who while privately critical of Pinochet is highly concerned about Communist infiltration,” another US declassified document stated. His interventions in the Episcopal Conference meetings were permanent as well as his influence in the appointment of conservative bishops who disregarded human rights violations or had a non-interventionist position in political and social issues. When Cardinal Silva turned 75, his resignation was quickly accepted and Sodano influenced the designation of the moderate Juan Francisco Fresno. When Pinochet’s wife, Lucía Hiriart, heard about the replacement, she said: “God heard us!” In the appointment of bishops, Sodano used all available means to favor conservative priests (Análisis, Apr. 1987). From 1980 to 1987, the vast majority (14 of 19) of new bishops were theologically and politically conservative. “With the appointment of Fresno, Sodano became like a ‘co-cardinal’ or local bishop (Mary Mooney, “Challenge to authority: Catholic laity in Chile and the United States 1966 – 1987”, a thesis submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research, McGill University, 1994). • His influence was not limited to the ecclesiastical hierarchy. He also interfered in every aspect of the pastoral activity, censoring Catholic teachers and publications (Análisis, April 1987), and reprimanded priests and nuns for participating in protests and political activities against the regime (David Fernández, La “Iglesia” que resistió a Pinochet, Madrid, Iepala, 1996). He periodically reported to the Vatican on the activities of the so-called “progressive sector” of the Church, according to lay organizations.
Sources on Sodano and collaboration with Pinochet : Many articles and other sources of information suggested that he was in favor of Pinochet’s dictatorship : L’Obs ; La Croix ; Some Wikileaks cables have confirmed the long silence by the Vatican on the violence of the Pinochet regime (the documents are from 1973, before Sodano occupied his post) ; Petition from several religious organizations in Chili against Cardinal Sodano ; Written in 2003, this profile by the Mexican newspaper El Universal describes Angelo Sodano as an éminence grise: someone who came as close to the power of the Church as possible without being the Pope himself, but also someone who went to great lengths to leave no traces of his public and private life behind. The profile underlines the importance of Sodano’s role in securing the Vatican’s support for the Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet: Sodano organised a papal visit to Chile while Pinochet was in power, and he counselled John Paul II—the pope at the time—to give the communion to Pinochet. During this visit, the Pope also greeted a Chilean crowd from a balcony, standing alongside Pinochet for journalists to snap photographs, in what came to be seen as a strong symbol of political support. The profile adds that Sodano was also behind the Pope’s congratulatory letter for Pinochet’s golden jubilee.
Human Rights in Chile. Sodano’s role in human rights violations during the Pinochet regime is a matter of controversy. Although nobody accuses him of having directly participated in crimes, when part of the local hierarchy was struggling against military abuses, he had an omissive participation and even complicity in the persecution of dissident priests and nuns. A US State Department declassified document from 1978 revealed an episode in which Sodano intervened to stop Church complaints against the regime. When the first evidence of disappeared people were found, Cardinal Silva Henríquez prepared a strong homily and Sodano “encouraged the cardinal to go easy.” According to the document, Silva was “not sure where the Pope [John Paul II] stands on Church involvement in temporal concerns.” • Foreign minister Jaime Del Valle told the US Ambassador to Chile: “Both the Holy See and the Nuncio [Sodano] had been telling the government to go ahead and prosecute anyone they found in Church organizations who was involved in ‘subversive’ activities.” Jaime Escobar, a theologian affiliated with liberation theology through the magazine Reflexión y Liberación, said: “It is more than proven that the Nuncio [Sodano] was an informer [to Pinochet] of priests with a critical tendency towards the military regime” (Fernández, 1996). • Sodano never spoke in public about the detention and murder of the priests Joan Alsina, Miguel Woodward, Antonio Llidó, Gerardo Poblete, and André Jarlan. He also did not say anything after the 1985 murder of José Manuel Parada, employee of the Vicariate of Solidarity and member of the Communist Party. He is mentioned as an accomplice in the expulsion from Chile of the French priests Pierre Dubois, Jaime Lancelot, and Daniel Caruette, who worked in La Victoria, a settlement in the south of Santiago where Jarlan was killed two years before. In 1983, three other foreign priests were expelled; while the Vicariate of Solidarity “categorically rejected the charges” against them, Sodano “publicly lamented the expulsion in much vaguer and more general terms,” according to a report produced by the US Embassy: “The Nuncio is known to be dismayed at the open political activism of some priests in Santiago whom he considers to be transgressing papal guidelines.” • He also had a privileged role in the diplomatic corps in Chile and curbed foreign ambassadors’ claims on human rights violations.
– Pinochet. Sodano frequently participated in official activities upon invitation by the military regime. But Sodano’s relationship with the regime also had moments of harshness. In 1984, four members of the revolutionary group MIR who participated in the murder of the military governor of Santiago asked for political asylum in the nunciature. After several days of negotiation with the government and the personal intervention of Sodano, they finally obtained safe passage to leave the country despite the pressure of the regime that even sieged the Vatican building using military forces. Pinochet awarded Sodano the Chilean Grand Cross of the Order of Merit for his “skills and influence” in diplomacy. • In 1993, when the dictator was out of power, Sodano sent a greeting card to him on behalf of Pope John Paul II to celebrate Pinochet’s golden wedding anniversary, highlighting the exemplarity of the couple. Sodano’s personal letter accompanied the telegram: “Mr. General, this is the expression of my highest and most distinguished consideration.” • As Secretary of State, Sodano intervened directly in favor of the release of Pinochet from London. The general was detained in September 1998 with an order of extradition from the Spanish Judge Baltasar Garzón on charges of genocide, murder, and torture. Pinochet was finally released in March 2000. • His connections, however, were not only political. He also displayed his influence in the Catholic University of Chile, were students used to see him walking around and lecturing, and among businessmen who supported the coup.
John Paul II’s visit to Chile in 1987. Sodano led the organization of the papal visit at a time of an increasing internal and external pressure for a democratic exit from Pinochet’s dictatorship. It was officially a religious visit but Sodano and Pinochet’s government managed to include a meeting in the presidential palace and, finally, a greeting of the Pope from a balcony with Pinochet on his left. The picture traveled around the world and aroused great controversy. The regime used it as an evidence of the papal support while others considered the visit a support to the country’s pacification, a call for unity, and the end of political violence. Sodano was accused of exercising prior restraint on the speeches read by laymen in order to remove any political implication. He was also blamed of avoiding an official visit to the Vicariate of Solidarity.
The Legion of Christ in Chile. Sodano’s relationship with the Legion of Christ later deepened when he became Cardinal Secretary of State. This relationship began with the arrival of the religious institute to Chile in 1980. His connection was mostly through the Irish priest Raymund Cosgrove, who introduced him to Marcial Maciel in Santiago. Sodano was also a frequent visitor to the novitiate of the Legion in Santiago and was the one who put them in contact with high-ranking officials in the regime. Maciel became a staunch supporter of Pinochet.
Fernando Karadima. Shortly after his arrival to Chile, Sodano became very close to Karadima, a powerful parish priest of the church of El Bosque, in Santiago, frequented by the conservative elite. The visits to the parish were so frequent that one room of the church was called “the Nuncio’s room.” Testimonies indicate that at these meetings Karadima provided Sodano with political and pastoral information about priests and bishops, thanks to his large network of informants within the Church, and promoted priests who belonged to his inner circle of power. Witnesses say that Sergio Rillón, one of Pinochet’s main advisors and officially in charge of the liaison with the Church, also participated in the meetings. Four of Karadima’s closest disciples became bishops with the support of Sodano. In 2010, Karadima was declared guilty by the Vatican of sexual abuse of minors and assigned to a life of prayer and penance. (Sources : M. Olivia Monckeberg, Karadima: el señor de los infiernos, Santiago de Chile, Debate, 2011; Juan Andrés Guzmán, Gustavo Villarrubia, and Mónica González, Los secretos del imperio Karadima, La Investigacíon definitive sobre el escándalo que remeció a la iglesia chilena, Santiago de Chile, Catalonia/UDP, 2011; Juan Carlos Cruz, El fin de la inocencia, Santiago de Chile, Debate, 2014).
– Argentina. Sodano established a close relationship with President Carlos Menem (1989-99). Menem’s administration was completely aligned with the Vatican anti-abortion position in international forums. The President also established the “day of the unborn child” to ingratiate himself with his pro-life allies in the Vatican (four months later, the Vatican awarded Menem the Pathway for Peace prize at the UN headquarters in New York). • While the Vatican decorated Menem, most of the Argentine episcopate condemned the government’s corruption and economic adjustment policies. • In 1999, during Menem’s sixth and last visit to Pope John Paul II, Sodano summoned the President to join a forum of dignitaries aimed at spreading the doctrine of the Church worldwide. (Olga Wornat, Nuestra Santa Madre, Buenos Aires, Ediciones B, 2002) • One of the key connections between Menem and Sodano was Esteban “Cacho” Caselli, a former ambassador to the Holy See considered the main Argentine lobbyist in the Vatican (until Francis). Caselli was an important fundraiser who could obtain public donations for the Vatican from the Menem administration. Called “The Bishop,” Caselli also had a great influence in the conservative wing of the Argentine episcopate and close ties to Cardinal Leonardo Sandri (Sodano’s right-hand man as Substitute of the Secretariat of State). Caselli was appointed Argentine ambassador to the Holy See in 1997 and in 2008 he was elected Italian Senator as part of Silvio Berlusconi’s coalition. An article reports that Caselli also helped a brother of Sodano to avoid bankruptcy of his construction company. John Paul II honored him Gentiluomo di Sua Santità. Caselli was involved in corruption scandals in Argentina and Italy.
Bergoglio v. Sodano. According to Pope Francis’ biographer Sergio Rubín, “Sodano was probably the main internal enemy of Jorge Bergoglio when he was Archbishop of Buenos Aires.” At that time, Bergoglio “questioned the kind of relations between Argentina and Sodano [when Menem was president]. There were speculations about operations led by the most conservative sectors of the Vatican and the Argentine Church itself (they were and are a minority) to displace Bergoglio from the archbishopric of Buenos Aires and throw him to an insignificant position in Rome.”
On Pinochet’s amnesty : Published in 1999, this article by the Spanish newspaper El País, sets the Opus Dei and Cardinal Angelo Sodano, the main diplomat of the Vatican in Chile during the Pinochet government and later on Secretary of State for the Vatican, as the central figures in an effort to use Vatican mediation to grant Augusto Pinochet amnesty while he was still in the UK but facing extradition. Once the press had linked Sodano to the amnesty effort for a dictator, the cardinal would go on to justify his actions by saying he had been moved for “humanitarian motives”. Many other articles in the Spanish-speaking world took up this information. This article by the Argentine journal Página 12 quotes Sodano’s words about humanitarian motives more closely. See also : La Croix.
Positions on pedophilia and sexual abuse: Many books and articles have been written mentioning the links between Cardinal Sodano, John Paul II and Father Marcial Maciel. I use, among others : Jason Berry and Gerald Renner, Vows of Silence. The Abuse of Power in the Papacy of John Paul II, Free Press, 2004 (from Jason Berry see also his anti-Pope John Paul II article : Jason Berry, “The Shame of John Paul II : How the Sex Abuse Scandal Stained His Papacy”, The Nation, April 27, 2011 ; Jason Berry, “Father Marcial Maciel and the Popes he stained”, Newsweek, Nov 3, 2013. See also : Jason Berry, “Francis Must Fix-Up Cover-Up culture that John-Paul II enabled”, NCROnline.org, Feb 21, 2019.
– The Wikileaks cables have confirmed the intervention of Cardinal Sodano to avoid financial sanctions for the Holy See after pedophilia cases. On this point see: Gerald Posner, God’s Bankers, A History of Money and Power at the Vatican, Simon & Schuster, 2015, pp. 409-410. In 2005, an article already confirmed how Cardinal Sodano refused any investigation on Marcial Maciel (source). This other Mexican article also focuses on Sodano (La Jornada). See also this article ; another article published by the Center for Journalistic Investigation (CIPER, by its name in Spanish) ; and this movie, released in 2015. See also on Cardinal Sodano : Laurie Goodstein, “Now Gathering in Rome, a Conclave of Fallible Cardinals”, New York Times, Feb 26, 2013.
Schonborn vs. Sodano : On the attacks by Cardinal Schonborn against Sodano for his actions on sexual abuse : Rachel Donadio, « In Rare Memo, Vatican rebukes Cardinal », New York Times, June 28, 2010. Another source mentions the fact that cardinal Christoph Schonborn from Vienna accused Sodano to have defended cardinal Hans Hermann Groer.
On the possible cover-up of Macial Maciel’s pedophilia scandal: NCRonline 1 ; NCROnline 2 ; America Magzine.
On sexual abuse cover-up and responsibility, see this analysis : John Allen, On Cardinal Sodano and the meaning of ‘accountability’, Crux, Aug 12, 2018. See also : Edward Pentin, « The Allegations Against Cardinal Sodano », The Catholic World Report, May 4, 2011.
Political and financial scandals by the Sodano family (Sodano’s nephew Andrea Sodano is possibly involved, and the overall potential financial family links to Marcial Maciel): Jason Berry, “Tha Shame of John Paul II : How the Sex Abuse Scandal Stained His Papacy”, The Nation, April 27, 2011 ; Edward Pentin, “The Allegations Against Cardinal Sodano”, Catholic World Report, May 4, 2011. See also : Riposte Laïque.
On Sodano under Benedict XVI : See also the criticisms and insinuations in : Nicolas Diat, L’Homme qui ne voulait pas être pape, Histoire secrete d’un règne, Albin Michel, 2014 (not translated into English nor Italian ; the book has been panned by the Pope’s spokesman, Federico Lombardi, who considers it « seriously misleading »).
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Sacré College », « Les Légionnaires du Christ », « L’Anneau de luxure », « La Croisade contre les gays », « Drôle de ménage » and many other chapters (french version) / « Sacred College », « Legionnaires of Christ », « The Ring of Lust », « The Crusade againt gays », « Strange Household » etc.  (english version).

Sodom

– City of Sodom, History, Archeology, Climatology, Myth.
◊ See also: Dead Sea (The) ; Loth ; and Orient Travels (Literature)
Interpretation of Sodom in the Bible : For the mentions of Sodom in the Bible and its interpretation, I mainly use the significant book by Thomas Römer, L’homosexualité dans le Proche-Orient ancien et la Bible, Labor and Fides, Genève, 2016 (about Sodom and “Genese 19”, see chapter II, pp. 54-64 ; for the New Testament, see chapter IV, pp. 113-121 ; see also the conclusion and the bibliography). I also use the classic book by John Boswell, Christianity, Social Tolerance and Homosexuality, University of Chicago Press, 1980, pp. 91-117.
On the history of Sodom (according to the Old Testament) : I follow the Bible in Genesis 14 ; 18 and 19 ; Deuteronomy 29.21-23 and 32.32 ; Amos 4.11 ; Jeremy 23.14 ; 49.18 and 50.40 ; Isaiah (Isaïe) 1.9 ; 3.9 and 13.19 ; Zephaniah (Sophonie) 2.9 ; Lamentations 4.6 ; and Ezekiel (Ezéchiel) 16.46-58.
On the history of Sodom (according to the New Testament) : Matthew 10.1-15 and 11.20-24 ; Mark 6.11 ; Luke 9.51-56 ; 10.12 and 17.29 ; Epistle to the Romans/Epitre aux Romains 9.29 ; Peter II 2.6-7 ; Jude 17 ; Revelations/Apocalypse 11.8. See also, André-Marie Gerard, Dictionnaire de la Bible, Robert Laffont, 1989 (voir Sodome, pp. 1292-1293) and the very useful chapter XXIII « The Dead Sea » by George Adam Smith in The Historical Geography of the Holy Land, Hodder and Stoughton, 1897 (see pp. 497-516).
On the archeological debate : I follow Konstantinos Politis in Sanctuary of Lot at Deir Ain Abata in Jordan, National Press of Jordan/British Museum, 2012 ; I have also read Thomas Schaub & Walter Rast, Bâb Edh-Dhrâ, Excavations in the Cemetery, Directed by Paul Lapp, 1965-1967, The American School of Oriental Research, 1989. See also, the short chapter by Konstantinos Politis, “Lost cities of Sodom & Gomorrah : Real of Imaginated”, in Brian Fagan, The Seventy Great Mysteries of the Ancient World: Unlocking the Secrets of Past Civilizations, Thames and Hudson, 2001.
On the Bronze Age : The Bronze Age (3300-1200 BCE) is traditionally divided in three periods : Early Bronze = 3300–2300 BCE ; Middle Bronze = 2300-1550 BCE ; Late Bronze 1550-1200 BCE. Today, archeologists believe Sodom might have existed in the Middle Bronze period, but it is still open to discussion.
­– Expeditions : For the 1847 expedition led by US Army’s Lt. William Lynch (1801-1865) to “fix the exact elevation of the Dead Sea, to collect scientific specimens and to try to find the ruins of Sodom and Gomorrah and sustain the Book of Genesis account of the cities’ destruction” see : Andrew Jampoler, Sailors in the Holy Land: The 1848 American Expedition to the Dead Sea and the Search for Sodom and Gomorrah, Naval Institute Press, 2005 ; for the 1924 expedition to the Southeastern Dead Sea Region and the discovery of Bâb edh-Dhrâ, see Thomas Schaub & Walter Rast, Bâb Edh-Dhrâ, Excavations in the Cemetery, edited by Paul Lapp, 1965-1967, op. cit.
Other theories : For a different approach, and another hypothetical location for Sodom (at Tall al-Hamman, North of the Dead Sea) see Steven Collins & Latayne Scott, Discovering the City of Sodom, Howard Books, 2013. And see The Washington Post and Popular Archaeology.
Geological & Climatological background : The most accurate study about geological and climatological causes that might explain the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, see David Neev & K. O. Emery, The Destruction of Sodom, Gomorrah and Jericho, Geological, Climatological and Archaeological Background, Oxford University Press, 1995 (see especially chapters 4 and 6).
On the myth of Sodom as a city of homosexuals : Michael Carden, Sodomy : A History of a Christian Biblical Myth, Oakville, 2004 ; Weston W. Fields, Sodom and Gomorrha, History and Motif in Biblical Narrative, Sheffield, 1997 ; Ed Noort and Eibert Tigchelaar, Sodom’s Sin, Genesis 18-19 and its interpretation, Leiden, 2004.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in an unpublished chapter(s) about the search of the city of Sodom : see online : http://www.sodoma.fr

Solidarnosc

– Polish Catholic Union
◊ See: Dziwisz (Stanislaw) ; Solidarnosc ; Pope John Paul II ; Glodz (Slawoj Leszek) ; Mokrzycki (Mieczyslaw) ; Przydatek (Casimiro) etc.
On the possible funding of Solidarnosc : I mainly use the book by Fabio Marchese Ragona, Il Caso Marcinkus, Chiarelettere, 2018 (on the funding of Solidarnosc, the book suggests that more than one billion dollars was transferred from/by the Vatican to Solidarnosc in the 1980s ; Archbishop Marcinkus, Stanislaw Dziwisz and the Polish Jesuit priest Casimiro Przydatek might have been the main architects of the transfers ; see pp. 118-130). See also : Franca Giansoldati, Il Demonio in Vaticano I Legionari di Cristo e Il caso Maciel, Edizioni Piemme Spa, 2014, trans. in French : L’Affaire Maciel, Albin Michel, 2015 (in this influential book, Giansoldati reveals the exchange of money between Marcial Maciel and the Vatican) ; Carl Bernstein and Marco Politi, Sa Sainteté, Jean-Paul II et l’histoire cachée de notre époque, Plon, 1996 ; Gianluigi Nuzzi, Vaticano S.p.A, Chiarelettere, 2009 ; trans. in French : Sa Sainteté, Scandales au Vatican (he describes the account of the Foundation Cardinal Francis Spellan) ; or David Yallop, The Power and the Glory : Inside the Dark Heart of Pope John Paul II’s Vatican, 2009 (who suggests that more than 100 million dollars were sent to Solidarnosc by the Vatican of John-Paul II) ; see also “Dans les coulisses du Vatican”, L’Express, Special Issue, Jan./March 2016 (“Les errements des banquiers de Dieu”, pp. 152-159). See also on the links between Stanislaw Dziwisz and Marcial Maciel : John Thavis, “The Vatican diaries” who discusses Dziwisz’s contacts with the Legionaries of Christ and Marcial Maciel. In respect to the financial support of Solidarnosc by Legionaries see this article by Gazeta Wyborcza (in Polish) : the author writes: “In all probability Maciel supports Solidarnosc in Poland. That was the reason for the friendship with John Paul II. Each time his sins have been neutralized. Over and over as the new documents reached the Vatican, the old ones had been already forgotten.” In this article he writes that he made use of the following books: « La Iglesia del silencio. De mártires y pederastas », « Marcial Maciel. La historia de un criminal » and « La voluntad de no saber ». (See above : Marcial Maciel.) See also : Vatican help for communist Poland (Pomoc Watykanu dla komunistycznej Polski) : About how John Paul II supposedly sent 150 million dollars for the needs of the Church and Solidarity in Poland between 1981-1989 (source). President Lech Walesa says that Solidarity received money from the Vatican (source).
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Sacré College » & « Les Légionnaires du Christ » (french version) / « The Sacred College » & « The Legion of Christ » (english version).

Spadaro (Antonio)

– Jesuit.
– Record of his conference at Sciences Po Paris organized by F. Martel: here.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Spain & Spanish Episcopal Conference

◊ See also : Cardinal Rouco Varela ; Cardinal Cañizares ; Bishop Reig Pla (Juan Antonio).
– On the history of the LGBT movement in Spain see : Armand de Fluvià I Escosa, El movement gai a la clandestinitat del franquisme, 1970-1975, Laertes editorial, 2003 (in Catalan).
– On the situation of homosexuals under Franco’s dictatorship, see two books : Arturo Arnalte, Redada de Violetas, La Represión de los homosexuales durante el franquisme, La Esfera De Los Libros, 2003 (in spanish) ; and Fernando Olmeda Nicolás, El Látigo y la pluma : Homosexuales en la España de Franco (Memoir, in Spanish), Oberon, 2004.
– On Federico Garcia Lorca, see : Ian Gibson, Lorca y el mundo gay x@@ voir la ref
Spanish Episcopal Conference (March 2017 Election) – On the Spanish Episcopal Conference, see the Conference  website; see also the new elected team. See also : Jesús Bastante, “La Iglesia española desbanca como número dos al hombre del Papa y pone al ultraconservador Cañizares”, El Diario, March 14, 2017 ; see also : Jesús Bastante, “El Papa responde al desafío de la Conferencia Episcopal con el nombramiento como cardenal del arzobispo de Barcelona”, El Diario, May 21, 2017.
– The 14 homophobic bishops in Spain, according to an LGBT association (here).
– A long interview with Pope Francis for El Pais, which shows how well-informed the Pope is about Spain : Antonio Caño y Pablo Ordaz, « El peligro en tiempos de crisis es buscar un salvador que nos devuelva la identidad y nos defienda con muros », El Pais, January 22, 2017 :
– Election of Bishop Blázquez and Cardinal Cañizares, Episcopal Conference in Spain (2017) : El Diario (left-wing)  ; La Vanguardia (center, center-right, from Catalonia) ; El País (center, center-left), it has interesting background  ; ABC (right), with some background ; coverage of an interview on COPE by Hispanidad (extreme right-wing, it seems)  ; similar coverage on ABC (right) ; Analysis by José Manuel Vidal on El Mundo (center-right) ; Analysis by Joan Carles Martí at El Faro de Vigo (regional newspaper) ; Reaction within the Jewish and Muslim communities, 20 minutos.
José Mantero. Gay Spanish Priest. In 2002, he was the first Spanish priest to publicly recognise his homosexuality. He did it through an article published in a gay magazine titled “I thank God that I’m gay”. He announced his sexual orientation following declarations by Spanish bishops that homosexuality was an illness. He was prohibited by the Church to continue his pastoral functions as a result. About gay priests in the Church, he said in a 2010 interview to The Clinic online: There are many other [gay men] in the clergy. The percentage is very high and often this is known by a priest’s bishop, which makes it so that a gay man in the Church is a man under control. The archbishops are of the mind that ‘you have to be careful, don’t do as you shouldn’t because I can throw you out into the streets at any time’. See also : El Pais 1 ; El Pais 2 ; The Guardian ; Liberation.
Homophobic bishops. List of the 14 most homophobic bishops in Spain by the Observatorio Español de LGTBfobia (sources).
Joaquín María López de Andúja. Bishop. Supports Cañizares publicly. Amores Santos : see this documentary about the hypocrisy of the Catholic Church regarding homosexuality.
Radical Catholic Associations in Spain. “Sotanas en la sombra: el poder del ultracatolicismo mexicano en España”, in the Huffington Post. An account of the influence of Mexican Catholic sects in Spain. They occupy important positions in education and religion, and in politics they lobby for an anti-gay agenda. 
El Yunque. Ultra Catholic, anti-gay lobby. Founded by a Mexican. It acts in various countries. Short article about the history of the organization. 
About its role in the anti-gay demonstrations in Mexico during 2016.
Opus Dei in Spain : see this academic article
Sexual abuse in Spain : in 2018, the Spanish Jesuits began a long investigation : see, El Pais.
Gay Christians blog : Spanish blog for “gay Christians joined against LGBT discrimination”. Might be interesting. 
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Rouco» (french version) / « Rouco » (english version).

Stefanini (Laurent)

– French diplomat
– Emiliano Fittipaldi, Lussuria, Peccati, scandali e tradimenti di una Chiesa fatta di uomini, Feltrinelli, 2017 ; Jean-Gabriel Fredet, “Un ambassadeur ‘gay’ au Vatican : les dessous de l’imbroglio”, Challenges, April 27, 2015 ; Jean-Marie Guénois, “Sortie de crise entre Paris et le Vatican”, Le Figaro, April 7, 2016.
– See also : “Bernard Kouchner : ‘Le Vatican me semble mal place pour refuser les homosexuels”, L’Express, April 22, 2015. (In an Interview in 2018, Kouchner told me basically the same thing regarding the case of Laurent Stefanini and, previously, on another French ambassador, Jean Loup Kuhn-Delforge).
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Qui suis-je pour juger ? » (french version) / « Who I’m to judge ?» (english version).

Stenico (Tommaso)

– Former chief officer at the Congregation for the Clergy.
– He was fired in 2007 when he was identified as the priest framed by the TV network La7 for setting up meetings with young boys he met via online chat. See : Part 1 on YouTube ; Part 2 ; Part 3.
– See also, Marie Lemonnier, “Liaisons dangereuses au Vatican”, Nouvel Obs, 1 Nov 2017.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Swiss Guard

On the history of the Swiss Guard : Corrado Augias, I Segreti del Vaticano, Mondadori, 2010 (trans. in French : “Les Hallebardes du pape”, in Dans les Secrets du Vatican, De Pierre à François, L’incroyable histoire des papes, L’Express, Thema, Jan 2016). How to become a Swiss Guard at the Vatican : conditions and training, see here.
– About homosexuality : Elmar Maeder, chief of the Swiss Guard from 2002 to 2008: “The gay lobby in the Vatican is so big and powerful that is really dangerous for the safety of the Pope” (Repubblica) and on the same subject Emiliano Fittipaldi, Lussuria, Peccati, scandali e tradimenti di una Chiesa fatta di uomini, Feltrinelli, 2017 ; Christoph Graf, Commander of the Pontifical Swiss Guard, appointed by Pope Francis on 7 February 2015: “If the Church wants to follow society, it should allow abortion and homosexual unions. But would it still be the Catholic Roman Church?” (see here) ; The Vatican is a heaven for gays, by a former Swiss Guard (Giornalettismo) ; Vatican, the confession of a Swiss Guard: “I was molested by cardinals and bishops. The wanted me to go to their rooms, they called during the night” (see here) ; “Swiss Guard, NO to the women and to the gays” (see here) ; “Swiss Guard veteran claims existence of ‘gay network’ at the Vatican, The Guardian, Jan 20, 2014 ; “Un garde Suisse aurait été harcelé sexuellement”, 20 Minutes Suisse (and Daily Mail).
On Alois Estermann and the triple assassination of Swiss Guards : the senior officer of the Pontifical Swiss Guard was murdered in his Vatican apartment on May 4th 1998. According to the official version, Estermann and his Venezuelan wife, Gladys Meza Romero, were killed by a young Swiss Guard Vice-Corporal Cédric Tornay, who committed suicide afterward. See in Italian: “The truth about the Estermann killing” (Repubblica) ; “The strange case of the Swiss Guard dead because of his gay love (Giornalettismo) ; “The strange murder-suicide Estermann-Tornay” (Il Fatto Quotidiano) ; “The other truth about Tornay. Gay parties, he knew too much” by Massimo Lacchei (Repubblica). See also in French or English : John Follain, City of Secrets, The Truth behind the Murders at the Vatican, William Morrow, 2003 ; “Trois cadavres bien encombrants”, in “Dans les coulisses du Vatican”, L’Express, Special Issue, Jan./March 2016 (pp. 140-143) ; “Le triple meurtre qui embarrasse encore le Vatican 13 ans après”, Atlantico, Nov 20, 2011 ; Barbie Latza Nadeau, “Vatican Murder Mystery : Was It a Gay Love Triangle ?”, Daily Beast, 14 Nov, 2011 ; Bruno Béziat, “Chape de plomb sur l’étrange mort de deux gardes Suisse”, Sud Ouest, May 20, 2012 (with an interesting testimony by a priest from Bayonne).
Aloi Esterman’s documents : For documents, photos and different elements, see the website “Cédric Tornay memorial” here. A former journalist from the German daily newspaper, Der Spiegel, wrote also a book : Valeska von Roques, Mord im Vatikan, Publisher: Hoffmann und Campe Verlag, 2003 (in German only). See also : an interesting TV program « Zone d’ombre », Radio Television Suisse, Nov. 2, 2011.
Questionnable books : In addition, there is the questionable book by Massimo Lacchei, Verbum dei et verbum gay, Croce Libreria, 2007 (in Italian) which suggests a gay love story between Estermann and Tornay. See also this bizarre but well-informed article (without signature nor date) : “Meurtres au Vatican, l’affaire Cédric Tornay”, here. See also the anonymous book Bugie di Sangue in Vaticano. Il triplice delitto della guardia svizzera, publisher: Kaos, 2014 (this book, only available in Italian, Blood Lies in the Vatican, is a counter-investigation by alleged priests and insiders in the Vatican : in the first part, “Blood and Lies With’ Moral Certainty”, the book reconstructs the events immediately after the three corpses were discovered ; in the second part, “The Sacrificial Lamb”, all information provided by the Holy See is analyzed to determine the dynamics, author, and motive of the triple crime ; the third part of the book, “For the Truth”, reveals the many backgrounds that caused the massacre, coming to identify the background, the possible motive and the likely dynamics ; in the appendix, Muguette Baudat, the mother of alleged murderer Cédric Tornay, tells of her struggle). ; See also the role played by the Vatican diplomat, Mgr Ricca, in the dialogue with Cédric Tornay’s mother : Renaud Michiels, “Le prélat qui aimait un militaire Suisse”, Le Matin (A daily Swiss Newspaper) July 27, 2013. See also : Corrado Augias, I Segreti del Vaticano, Mondadori, 2010 (trans in French : “Trois cadavres bien encombrants”, in Dans les Secrets du Vatican, De Pierre à François, L’incroyable histoire des papes, L’Express, Thema, Jan 2016).
Christoph Graf : Commander of the Pontifical Swiss Guard, appointed by Pope Francis on 7 February 2015
– Elmar Maeder : Chief of the Swiss Guard from 2002 to 2008
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Les Gardes Suisses » (french version) / « The Swiss Guard » (english version).

Switzerland

– Mgr Vitus Huonder is a conservative bishop and he has many statements against gay people : see here and here. Pinkcross (one of the biggest swiss gay organisation) claimed against Mr. Huondor because of homophobic statements of Mr. Huondor in Fulda in 2015,  but the district attorney of the canton of Grison did closed the investigation in this case for legal reason : see here, here and here.
– Mgr Huonder’s use of the cappa magna : for example in Vienna (interview with J. Bonnemain).
– Mgr Marian Eleganti : In Chur is also Weihbischof (auxilliary bishop) Marian Eleganti, who is also very conservative and had anti-gays statements : see here, here, here and here.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Synod on the Family (2014 and 2015) and Amoris Laetitia

◊ See also : Cardinal Kasper ; Cardinal Müller ; Cardinal Burke ; Dubia.
Official interventions by pope Francis : a pre-synod interview by Antonio Spadaro for La Civiltà Cattolica.
On the “Francis” side : see Cardinal Schönborn in Antonio Spadaro, “Entretien avec le cardinal Schönborn sur Amoris Laetitia”, La Civiltà Cattolica, Oct 31, 2016, I (source) ; see also Jean-Michel Garrigues, “Eglise de purs ou nasse mêlée ?”, La Civiltà Catoolica, 13 juin 2015.
On the opposition side : See The four “Dubia” cardinals’ letter (Sept 19, 2016, made public Nov 2016).
Debates and events of the synod : Cécile Chambraud, “Le synode se divise sur les questions familiales”, Le Monde, Oct. 17, 2014 ; “Le synode continue de contester les passages sur l’homosexualité et les divorces remarries”, Le Figaro, Oct 19, 2014. (See the anecdotic story of the disappearance of some anti-Francis books during the synod here ; Cardinal Baldisseri might have acted).
– See also this book : Coll., Synode sur la vocation et la mission de la famille dans l’Église et le monde contemporain, 26 théologiens respondent, Bayard, 2015 (see chapter 7 : “Une relation homosexuelle vécue dans la stabilité et la fidélité peut-être un chemin de sainteté”). Céline Hoyeau, “Divorcés remariés, les cinq conditions du cardinal Kasper”, La Croix, March 3, 2014.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Le Synode » (french version) / « The Synod » (english version).


— T —



Theology of liberation (Théologie de la Libération)

◊ See: Liberation Theology

Thomas Aquinas (Saint)

◊ See Jacques Maritain, Adriano Oliva
– See Adriano Oliva, L’Amicizia più grande. Un contributo teologico alle questioni sui divorziati risposati e sulle coppie omosessuali, Éd. Nerbini, 2015 ; trans. in French : Amours, l’Eglise, les divorcés remariés, les couples homosexuels, Éditions du Cerf, 2015. See also : Adriano Oliva and Ruedi Imbach, La philosophie de Thomas d’Aquin, Vrin/Repères, 2016.
– Gerard Loughlin, ed., Queer Theology, Rethinking the Western Body, Blackwell, 2007 (see the chapter on Thomas Aquinas)
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Thurn und Taxis (Princess Mariae Gloria von)

◊ See : Germany ; David Berger ; Cardinal Müller ; Regensburg sex abuse scandal.
– Biography : Clément Ghys, “Gloria TNT, Le Freak c’est chic”, Libération, May 16, 2014.
– On LGBT issues, see : “Gloria Von Thurn und Taxis : ‘Die Homoehe ist ein Angriff auf die klassische Familie”, Queer.de.
– Quotations : « Jeder kann in seinem Schlafzimmer machen, was er will, aber das sollte man nicht zum politischen Programm machen. » (« Tout le monde peut faire ce qu’il veut dans sa chambre à coucher, mais cela ne doit pas se transformer en programme politique. » : she said this at a public discussion with priest Wilhelm Imkamp and two politicians from the CSU (source here). « Aus der Kirchengeschichte weiß ich, dass es auch früher schon häretische Bewegungen gab. Denken Sie nur an den Arianismus oder die Katharer, die keine Kinder wollten. Es gibt nichts Neues unter der Sonne. Es gibt Perioden, da scheint der Teufel fröhliche Urstände zu feiern, dann gibt es Zeiten, da er zurückgedrängt wird und vorsichtiger agieren muss. Aber er ist immer da. » (« I know from Church history that there were heretic movements already in previous times. If you only think of Arianism or the Catharists, who didn’t want to have children. There is nothing new under the sun. There are periods when the devil celebrates a happy resurrection, then there are times when he is pushed and has to act with more caution. But he is always there. » (Source here).
– About Cardinal Sarah in Regensburg for a book presentation (with Nicolas Diat) and with Cardinal Müller as the main speaker. In the photo, there is Joseph Ratzinger’s brother, Georg Ratzinger in the wheelchair, as well as the priest Wilhelm Imkamp. The preface of the German version was written by Georg Gänswein. (Source here).
– About Bishop Tebartz-van Elst, see this article (the article shows not only a photo with Gloria and Tebartz-van Elst, but also tells that Mgr Tebartz had visited Georg Ratzinger in Regensburg before his visit to Rome and then met Cardinal Müller in Rome and that both Gänswein and Müller had spoken in favor of Tebartz-van Elst when he was criticized because of his expenses for his new bishop’s palace. Gänswein supported Tebartz-van Elst after his removal as bishop (article here). However, in between when figures from a research commission were made public, Gänswein was also critical about the expenses made by Tebartz (here). Cardinal Meisner also defended Tebartz (here). After his removal from Limburg, Tebartz took residence in Regensburg (here) where he has a solid network of friends. He was invited by the current bishop, Rudolf Voderholzer. It also says that the chair of the Bavarian comittee of lay Catholics, Albert Schmid, was a close friend of Tebartz and former mayor of Regensburg.
– Gloria TNT supports Beatrix von Storch, vice-chair of the AfD, but says she is reluctant about the AfD (this was after the federal election in Oct. 2017): « Das hohe Ergebnis für die „Alternative für Deutschland“ hat mich dementsprechend auch nicht gewundert. Ich weiß noch nicht, was ich abschließend von der AfD halten soll. Man muss beobachten und abwarten, ob sie aus den Kinderschuhen herauswächst und am Ende zu einer erwachsenen Partei wird. Ich kenne jedenfalls Beatrix von Storch, eine geborene Prinzessin von Oldenburg, und sie ist seriös, ehrlich und engagiert. » (source). See also : « The high outcome for the Alternative for Germany didn’t surprise me. I don’t know yet, what my opinion about the AfD will ultimately be. We must monitor them and wait, if they can grow out of their children’s shoes and becomes an adult party. At least I know Beatrix von Storch, born as a princess of Oldenburg, and she is reliable, honest and committed. »
In the same text she said that she doesn’t understand Angela Merkel anymore and is critical about her refugee politics. » See also this photo on which Gloria TNT marching together with 2 MPs of the AfD at the Demo für Alle (Manif pour tous) bus campaign in 2018 in Regensburg. She also said : « Sexual education is a form of child abuse. » (Source here).
– On the anecdote of the « marzipan penis cake » at Gloria TNT’s castle, see : Tages Spiegel, here (exact quotation : « Zu seinem 60. Geburtstag organisiert sie auf St. Emmeram einen gigantischen Rokoko-Kostümball für ihn. Von Mick Jagger bis zum saudi-arabischen Waffenhändler Adnan Kashoggi sind alle Prominenten des internationalen Jetsets dabei. Sie behängen sich mit Juwelen und verkleiden sich als dem Untergang geweihte Aristokraten des vorrevolutionären Frankreichs. Gloria trägt das Diamantendiadem von Marie Antoinette und überreicht Johannes eine Torte mit 60 Marzipan-Penissen. »). See also another reference to the « marzipan penises » in an interview with her (she doesn’t deny it).
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Le Synode » (french version) / « The Synod» (english version). See also several other chapters in the book.

Tintin, by Hergé

– Tintin, a Catholic figure ? See here.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Tobin (Joseph W.)

– US cardinal.
– Appointed by Francis, Cardinal Tobin is the archbishop of Newark. He is pro-LGBT. See : Sharon Otterman, “As Church shifts, a Cardinal Welcomes Gays ; They embrace a ‘Miracle’ ”, New York Times, June 14, 2017.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « La Théorie du genre » (french version) / « Gender Theory » (english version).

Trump (Donald)

◊ See: US ; Steve Bannon ; Dignitatis Humanae Institute ; Cardinal Burke ; Viganò (Carlo Maria) & Viganò Testimonianza
– Trump against Pope Francis, see : Le Monde, October 2018 ; Dignitatis Humanae Institute : “This is How Steve Bannon Sees The Entire World”, Nov 16, 2016 (source).
– Trump defends Pope Francis on abuse crisis (after Viganò) : Catholic Herald.
– On Trump and Cardinal Burke, see : Jason Horowitz, « Steve Bannon Carries Battles to Another Influential Hub : The Vatican », New York Times, Feb. 7, 2017. See also : Samuel Freedman, « “Church Militant Theology” Is Put To New, and Politicized, Use », New York Times, Dec 30, 2006 ; and an interesting point of view by Christopher Caldwell. For Steve Bannon’s speech at a symposium at the Vatican, via Skype, see the transcription here.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « La Théorie du genre » (french version) / « Gender Theory» (english version).

Turkson (Peter)

– Cardinal from Ghana
– Sexual abuse cover-up : Cardinal Peter Turkson is mentionned on the “dirty dozen” list edited by the Survivors’ Network of those Abused by Priests (SNAP) (source here).
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

— U —

United Kingdom

– Nicholas Chamberlain. He is the first bishop in the Church of England to declare himself gay and in a relationship. He was pushed by the threat of a newspaper to make this declaration himself, which he did in an interview with The Guardian. The bishop of Canterbury, who was involved in his nomination, said that: “I am and have been fully aware of Bishop Nick’s long-term, committed relationship. His appointment as bishop of Grantham was made on the basis of his skills and calling to serve the church in the diocese of Lincoln. He lives within the bishops’ guidelines and his sexuality is completely irrelevant to his office.”
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

United Nations, sexual abuse scandals commission

◊ See : Cardinal Renato Martino.
– In 2014, the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child condemned the Vatican’s handling of the global priest sex abuse scandal during a hearing in which representatives of the Holy See were questioned in public for the first time over allegations that it protected clerics at the expense of their young victims. See : The Guardian ; La Croix.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Les Diplomates du pape » (french version) / « Pope’s Diplomats » (english version).

United Nations, Declaration against LGBT discrimination, 2008

– On Dec. 18, 2008, at the UN General Assembly, Argentina read the « Déclaration relative aux Droits de l’homme et à l’orientation sexuelle et l’identité de genre. ». See : The official statement by the Holy See regarding the 2008 declaration on LGBT discrimination.
– On this complex and long history, I use mainly my previous book, Global Gay, Comment la Révolution gay change le monde, Flammarion, 2013 ; trans. into English with the same title Global Gay, by MIT-Press, 2018. See also : Jeanne Favret-Saada, Jeux d’ombres sur la scène de l’ONU, Droits humains et laïcité, Editions de l’Olivier, 2010 ; Human Rights Council, Discriminatory laws and practices and acts of violence against individuals based on their sexual orientation and gender identity, Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Nov 17, 2011, 25 p.
– On the debate within the UN on the LGBT declaration in 2008, I was able to obtain confidential telegrams from embassies from the Core Group (111 telegrams in total, June 2008).
– On the quite short history of the LGBT issue in the UN, see « Joint statements » on the Human Rights Council by Brazil (« Joint Statement », 2003, with 20 members), New Zeland (March 2005, 32 members), Norway (Joint Statement, Dec 2006, 54 members) ; see OAS Resolution on Human Rights, Sexuality Orientation and Gender Identity, AG/RES 2435, June 2008 and AG/RES 2504 June 2009 ; see the Address by Ms. Navanetham Pillay, United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on gender identity, sexual orientation and human rights, 63th session of the General Assembly of the UN Dec 2008 ; see also the preparatory documents for Durban I (2001) and Durban II (2009, in Geneva) ; see also the conclusions on the « Yogyakarta principles » (Asia Pacific Forum of National Human Rights Institutions, May 2009).
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Les Diplomates du pape » (french version) / « Pope’s diplomats » (english version).

United States

◊ See: Cardinal Burke ; Steve Bannon ; Dignitatis Humanae Institute ; Trump (Donald) ; McCarrick ; Viganò (Carlo Maria) & Viganò Testimonianza
– General overview : Kenneth Woodward, Getting Religion, Faith, Culture and Politics from the Age of Eisenhower to the Era of Obama, 2016
– On the right-wing US Catholics against Pope Francis, see: Paul Williams, Among the Ruins, The Decline and Fall of The Roman Catholic Church, Prometheus Books, 2017.
– On Cardinal Burke : see ◊ Burke, Raymond.
– On Cardinal Keeler : Sam Roberts, “William Keeler, Cardinal Who Championed Sexual Abuse Victims, Dies at 86 », New York Times, March 24, 2017.
– On Cardinal Rigali : Katharine Q. Seelye, “In Philadelphia, a Changing of the Guard in the Shadow of Scandal”, New York Times, July 19, 2011. See also on Cardinal Rigali : Laurie Goodstein, “Now Gathering in Rome, a Conclave of Fallible Cardinals”, New York Times, Feb 26, 2013.
– On Cardinal Rembert Weakland, see his own memoir : Rembert Weakland, A Pilgrim in a Pilgrim Church: Memoirs of a Catholic Archbishop, Eerdmans, 2009 (see here). See also this article by Peter Nixon for U.S. Catholics.
– On Cardinal Tobin : appointed by Francis, he is the archbishop of Newark and a pro-LGBT prelate. See : Sharon Otterman, “As Church shifts, a Cardinal Welcomes Gays ; They embrace a ‘Miracle’ ”, New York Times, June 14, 2017.
– On Cardinal Francis George, archbishop of Chicago : Laurie Goodstein, “Now Gathering in Rome, a Conclave of Fallible Cardinals”, New York Times, Feb 26, 2013.
– On Cardinal Kevin Farrell, the Prefect of the Vatican’s dicastery for laity, family and life, see : Sharon Otterman, “As Church shifts, a Cardinal Welcomes Gays ; They embrace a ‘Miracle’ ”, New York Times, June 14, 2017.
– On Cardinal William Levada : Snejana Farberov, “Catholic cardinal and former top Vatican official, 79, arrested for DUI while vacationing in Hawaii with priest friends Catholic cardinal and former top Vatican official, 79, arrested for DUI while vacationing in Hawaii with priest friends”, Daily Mail, August 25, 2015. (See also Big Island Newspaper, in Hawaii).
– On Archibishop Salvatore Cordileone : Joey Piscitelli, “Bishop Salvatore Cordileone, Will he admit he’s gay ?”, OpedNews, 2012. See also : Father Geof Farrow’s blog, “Why was a college student in the car of drunken Archbishop-elect Cordileone at 12:23AM, when Cordileone was arrested for a DUI?”. See also National Catholic Reporter.
On US Sexual Abuse Scandals : the website Bishop Accountability provides a rich documentation and a list of hundreds of cases with the names of those accused or condemned : http://bishop-accountability.org/member/
On the opposition against Pope Francis : see the “Red Hat Report” : the right-wing US Catholic group, calling itself the Better Church Governance Group is gearing up to compile dossiers on the cardinal electors ahead of the next conclave. See Ncronline.
On the history of the gay movement in the US: David Eisenbach, Gay Power, An American Revolution, Carroll & Graf, 2006 ; John Loughery, The Other side of silence, Men’s live and gay identities : a Twentieth-Century history, Henry Holt and Cie, 1998 ; Charles Kaiser, The Gay Metropolis, The Landmark History of Gay Life in America Since World War II, Harvest Book/Harcourt, 1997 ; David Eisenbach, Gay Power, An American Revolution, Carroll & Graf, 2006 ; Dudley Clendinen & Adam Nagourney, Out of Good, The Struggle to Build a Gay Rights Movement in America, Simon & Schuster, 1999 ; Mark Thompson, ed., Long Road to Freedom, The Advocate History of The Gay and Lesbian Movement, St. Martin’s Press, 1994. See also : Linda Hirshman, Victory, The Triumphant Gay Revolution, Harper, 2012 and Alex Ross’s article, « Love on the March », The New Yorker, 12 novembre 2012.
On gay marriage in the US : Andrew Koppelman, Same Sex, Different States : When Same-Sex Marriages Cross Stage Lines, Yale University Press, 2006 ; Evan Wolfson, Why Marriage Matters, America, Equality, and Gay People’s Right to Marry, Simon & Schuster, 2004 ; George Chauncey, Why Marriage ? The History Shaping Today’s Debate Over Gay Equality, Basic Books, 2004 ; Evan Gerstmann, Same-Sex Marriage and the Constitution, Cambridge University Press, 2009 ; Willam Eskridge, Darren Spedale, Gay Marriage : For Better or for Worse ? What We’ve Learned from the Evidence, Oxford University Press, 2000. See also the very early book on the issue by Andrew Sullivan, Virtually Normal, An Argument about homosexuality, Vintage Books, 1995.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « La Théorie du genre » (french version) / « Gender Theory » (english version) and several other chapters of the book as background information.



— V —

Vatican II (Council)

– Concile Vatican II.
– I mainly used Christine Pedotti, La Bataille du Vatican, 1959-1965, Plon, 2012. See also, the French perspective in Denis Pelletier, Jean-Louis Schlegel, A la gauche du Christ, Les chrétiens de gauche en France de 1945 à nos jours, Le Seuil, 2012.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Vatican Sexual Scandals

◊ See: Sexual Abuses.
– One of the main sexual scandals in the Vatican, known as the “chorist” scandal : “Un scandale de prostitution homosexuelle touche le Vatican”, Slate, March 5, 2010. See also : La Repubblica ; Corriere de Veneto ; Le Monde ; see also : Emiliano Fittipaldi, Lussuria, Peccati, scandali e tradimenti di una Chiesa fatta di uomini, Feltrinelli, 2017.
Sex in Vatican is a well-known book by Italian journalist Carmelo Abbate. He infiltrated a network of gay Vatican priests and published his findings in 2010, including sex videos recorded with hidden cameras in a Church bulding, in the Italian media Panorama. Encountering one priest at a gay party in Rome, the journalist began unravelling the network until he was certain of the fact that a number of gay priests were leading a double life between a gay partying lifestyle and priesthood. The international press, media such as the BBC, also took it up. (Link in Italian). Same as Panorama article, only deeper.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Vatileaks (I & II)

◊ See : Pope Benedict XVI ; Tarcisio Bertone ; Georg Gänswein ; Viganò (Carlo Maria).
On the Vatileaks I scandal (The Butler/Paolo Gabriele) : Gianluigi Nuzzi, Sua Santità, La Carte Segrete di Benedetto XVI, Chiarelettere, 2012, trans. in French : Sa Sainteté, Scandale au Vatican, Privé, 2012 ; Gerald Posner, I banchieri di Dio, Newton Company Editori ; trans. in English, God’s Bankers, A History of Money and Power at the Vatican, Simon & Schuster, 2015, chap 38, pp. 461-471 and chap 39, pp. 478-483
On the Vatileaks II scandal (Pope Francis vs. Francesco Immacolata Chaouqui/Mgr Lucio Angel Vallejo Balda and the journalists Gianluigi Nuzzi and Emiliano Fittipaldi) : See Marco Politi, Francesco tra i lupi, Gius, Laterza & Figli, 2014 ; trans. in French : François parmi les loups, ed. Philip Rey, 2015 ; French paperback (updated version) : François parmi les loups, Points, Seuil, 2015 (see : pp. 251-259) ; see also Nicolas Diat, L’Homme qui ne voulait pas être pape, Histoire secrete d’un règne, Albin Michel, 2014 ; see also Francesco Immacolata Chaouqui, Nel nome di Pietro. Ricchezze, affari, intrighi e scandali. Dalle carte segrete della commissione del papa, Sperling & Kupfer, 2017.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Vatileaks» (french & english version).

Ventura (Luigi)

– Nuncio in Chile and in Paris.
– Nuncio in Chile, 1999-2001 ; nuncio in Paris.
– In 2019, Luigi Ventura has been accused by different men on sexual agressions. The case has been given to the French Paris court. See : Ariane Chemin, “L’ambassadeur du pape en France, Luigi Ventura, vise par une enquête pour agressions sexuelles”, Le Monde, 15 février 2019.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « Qui suis-je pour juger ? » (french version) / « Who I’m to judge ? » (english version).

Verdi (Giuseppe)

– On homosexual characters in Verdi’s operas, I use Dominique Fernandez, Amants d’Apollon, L’homosexualité dans la culture, Grasset, 2015 (see : “Il Lacerato spirito”, pp. 227-242)
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Viganò (Carlo Maria) & Viganò Testimonianza

◊ See also: Pope Francis ; Cardinal Burke ; McCarrick (Theodore) ; US.
On Viganò in general : Secretary-General of the Governorate of Vatican City State from 16 July 2009 to 3 September 2011 and Apostolic Nuncio to the United States from 19 October 2011 to 12 April 2016. See also Emiliano Fittipaldi, Lussuria, Peccati, scandali e tradimenti di una Chiesa fatta di uomini, Feltrinelli, 2017 (he explains how Viganò might have helped to provide cover for John C. Nienstedt and sexual abusers).
Viganò and Vatileaks : According to some letters published in the book “Sua Santità. Le carte segrete di Benedetto XVI” by Gianluigi Nuzzi, Viganò complained about the corruption in Vatican finances and was convinced of having a defamation campaign launched against him. In one of the letters sent to Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, Secretary of State at the time, he tried to clean up his own image by talking about a mysterious Doctor X, without naming him. • According to Viganò, this Doctor X told Bertone that Viganò was gay and this could be one of the reasons why Viganò was removed from his job in 2011.• Viganò says he’s not gay and that this Doctor X, described as a person very close to Tarcisio Bertone, is in fact gay himself, as well as a slanderer. Viganò says that: “His inclination has been confirmed to me by people from the Curia and from the diplomatic service. I’m ready to give names of all the people who were aware of that, including several bishops and priests” (from the chapter “Corruzione nei sacri palazzi”). See Gianluigi Nuzzi, Sua Saintita, La Carte Segrete di Benedetto XVI, 2012, trans. in French : Sa Sainteté, Scandale au Vatican, Privé, 2012 ; Nicolas Diat, L’Homme qui ne voulait pas être pape, Histoire secrete d’un règne, Albin Michel, 2014 (chapter 27 ; not translated into English nor Italian).
On Viganò “Testimonianza” (August 2018) : original document here ; also in French ; and original in Italian. The letter was published by the journalist Marco Tosatti, a Francis critic (source). Among hundreds of articles that have been published on this subject, I use : Jason Horowitz, “Pope Francis Long Knew of Cardinal’s Abuse and Must Resign, Archibishop Says”, New York Times, August 26, 2018 ; Michael Sean Winters, “Vigano Letter exposes the putsch against Pope Francis”, National Catholic Reporter, August 26, 2018 ; John-Henry Follow, “Cardinal Burke responds to former US nuncio’s explosive letter about pope Francis”, Lifesitenews, August 26, 2018 ; Elizabeth Dias and Laurie Goodstein, “Letter Accusing Pope Leaves U.S. Catholics in Conflict”, New York Times, Aug 27, 2018 ; Richard Pérez-Peña, “Pope Francis, the Accusations and the Back Story”, New York Times, August 27, 2018 ; Jason Harowitz, The Man Who Took On Pope Francis : The Story Behind the Viganò Letter, New York Times, Aug 28, 2018 ; “The Amazing Story of How Archbishop Vigano’s Report Came to Be”, 1P5, August 28, 2018 ; Andrea Tornielli, “Fact and omissions of Vigano’s Testimony against Francis”, La Stampa, August 28, 2018 ; Sandro Magister, “Il vaticanista Sandro Magister: ‘La pedofilia nella Chiesa è un fenomeno del passato. Ora bisogna fare i conti con l’omosessualità’ ”, Italio Oggi, reed. Huffington Post, August 29, 2018 ; Michelle Boorstein, “Former Vatican Ambassador’s Explosive Letter Reveals influence of conservative Catholic Media Network”, Washington Post, August 30, 2018 ; Laurie Goodstein, Jason Horowitz, “If Cardinal was Under Pope’s Sanctions, Why Has He Allowed at Gala Events ?”, New York Times, Sept 1, 2008 ; David Gardner & Hannah Roberts, “A Vatican Power Play”, Financial Times, Sept 1-2, 2018 ; Jason Horowitz, “Defending Pope Francis, Vatican Allies May Strengthen Vigano’s Hand”, New York Times, Sept 2, 2018 ; Jean-Marie Guénois, “Cette tempête qui s’abat sur le Vatican” (double-page), Le Figaro, Sept 4, 2018 ; Robert Mickens, “Sex, Lies & Viganò Takes. The real and sinful truth behind the archbishop’s accusations”, La Croix International, Sept 7, 2018.
Reactions to the Viganò report : Cardinal Burke’s support of the Viganò report, August 26, 2018, see here ; Official reaction by Cardinal Blase Cupich in Chicago (here) ; Official reaction by Cardinal Joseph Tobin in Newark (here) ; Official reaction of the Dignitatis Humanae Institute (Cardinal Burke and Benjamin Harnwell) on Mgr Viganò’s accusation of Cardinal Martino for being homosexual (here) ; Support for the Viganò report by Mgr Cordileone, archbishop of San Francisco (here).
On the Kim Davis story (Pope Francis vs. Viganò) : see here ; and the reaction in a long text by Federico Lombardi, the spokesperson of Pope Benedict XVI (original given to me by F. Lombardi, 2018) and, for Viganò’s position.
On the Kim Davis stories, see : Nicole Winfield, “Vatican begins push-back against ex-ambassador over Davis”, Associated Press.
On the 2nd Viganò “Testimonianza” (Sept 29, 2018) : original document here. And the reaction by Cardinal Ouellet (here).
On the 3rd Viganò “Testimonianza” (Oct 19, 2018) : original document in English: LifeSiteNews.com ; in Italian: AldoMariaValli.it ; in Spanish: InfoVaticana.com. Among other long developments on homosexuality, Viganò writes : “This is a crisis due to the scourge of homosexuality, in its agents, in its motives, in its resistance to reform. It is no exaggeration to say that homosexuality has become a plague in the clergy, and it can only be eradicated with spiritual weapons. It is an enormous hypocrisy to condemn the abuse, claim to weep for the victims, and yet refuse to denounce the root cause of so much sexual abuse: homosexuality.”
On the overall Viganò scandal : I have also used the book by Andrea Tornielli and Gianni Valente, Il Giorno del Giuzizio (Nov 2018, Italian version) : for the context (see chap. 1, esp. pp. 16-32) ; on McCarrick designation and Vigano’s omissions (see chap. 2, esp. pp. 33-37) ; on the role of S. Dziwisz (see chap. 2, esp. pp. 41) ; on Ratzinger/Benedict XVI’s knowledge of the case (see chap. 3, esp. pp. 44-60) ; on Pope Francis’ knowledge of the case (see chap. 4, esp. pp. 78-81, 99-100, 101) ; on the scandals around Francisco José Cox in Chile, Cardinal Groer in Austria and Keith O’Brien in UK (see chap. 5, esp. pp. 110-119) ; on the “political fabrications against the Pope” (see chap. 6, esp. pp. 120-129) ; on the situation of the American church and the so-called “schism” (see chap. 7, esp. pp. 130) ; on the fight within the Vatican, especially with Cardinal Burke against Francis (see chap. 12, esp. pp. 240-241). See also, for an overall background (before the Viganò scandal), the series by James Alison, “Caught in a trap of dishonesty”, The Tablet, 4 & 11 August 2018.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « La Théorie du genre » (french version) / « Gender Theory » (english version).

Villot (Jean)

– Secretary of State under Paul VI
◊ See : Paul VI ; Macchi (Pasquale) ; Marcinkus (Paul C.)
– I use mainly Antoine Wenger’s biography of Jean Villot: Antoine Wenger, Le Cardinal Jean Villot, 1905-1979, pref. René Rémond, Desclée De Brouwer, 1989. See also : Benoît Fournier, Le Cardinal Jean Villot, Secrétaire d’État de trois papes, Préface de Paul Poupard, Parole et silence, 2017.
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « L’Amour d’amitié » (french version) / « Love friendship » (english version).

Vinci (Léonard de)

Voir Leonardo da Vinci.

Voltaire

– Biographies : Pierre Milza, Voltaire, Perrin, 2007, reed. Tempus (see chapter 20) ; André Maurois, Voltaire, Grasset, 1935.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

— W X Y Z —

Wilde (Oscar)

– I use The Picture of Dorian Gray from the MacMillan Collectors Library’s edition, 2017. For the self-censured parts, I use Donald F. Lawler’s very interesting book : An Inquiry into Oscar Wilde’s Revisions of The Picture of Dorian Gray, Garland, 1988 ; and, in French, Oscar Wilde, Le Portrait de Dorian Gray Non Censuré, Les Cahiers Rouges/Grasset, 2016.
– Biography : On the life of Oscar Wilde, I use Richard Ellmann’s biography, Oscar Wilde, Penguin Books, 1987 (ed 1988) and the interesting texts by André Gide, « Wilde », Essais Critiques, Pléiade/Gallimard, 1999, pp. 836-854 and, even more important, Les Nourritures terrestres, 1897, L’Immoraliste, 1902, and Si le grain ne meurt, 1924/1926. I’ve also used: Dominique Fernandez, Le Rapt de Ganymède, Grasset, 1989 (especially the chapter “Le Portrait de Dorian Gray : un muse des bonheurs”) ; Colm Tóibín, Love in a dark time, Scribner, 2001 (see the text on Oscar Wilde) ; Peter Ackroyd, Queer City, Rey, 2017.
– About Oscar Wilde’s “short cape”, see : Oscar Wilde, A l’Heure du thé, Les Cahiers Rouges/Grasset, 2009 (a compilation of his main articles).
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Women and the church & Feminism

– Lucetta Scaraffia, Du Dernier Rang, La femme dans l’Église, Salvator, 2016.
– See also the book by Silea Balano, who pretented to be a lesbian and went to confession : Nel Nome del Padre, 2002.
– About the debate on the “exploitation of the nuns”, see Valeurs Actuelles.
– About the question of the sons and daughters of priests, see : Faustine Vincent, “Tel prêtre, tel fils”, Le Monde, Nov 30, 2018.
{further readingThis subject is mainly used as background information in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel.

Wuerl (Donald)

– US cardinal
– Sexual abuse cover-up : Cardinal Donald Wuerl was criticized in the Viganò Memo in August 2018 (here the original in Italian ; in English ; in French) ; he is also mentionned on the “dirty dozen” list edited by the Survivors’ Network of those Abused by Priests (SNAP) (source here).
{further readingThis subject is developed in the book Sodoma/In the Closet of the Vatican by F. Martel in chapter(s) : « La Théorie du genre » (french version) / « Gender Theory » (english version).

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Credits & quotations

In this book, some information and a few quotations were used from F. Martel previous books :
Le Rose et le Noir, Les Homosexuels en France depuis 1968, trans. in english by Stanford University press, 1996 ;
De la Culture en Amérique, Gallimard, 2006 ;
Global Gay, Flammarion, 2013, trans. in English MIT Press, 2018.

I also use many information (dates, names) from the official Vatican’s directory :
Annuario Pontificio, Città del Vaticano, Libreria Eidtrice Vaticana, 2 343 p. : I have used the 1978 ; 1989 ; 1995 ; 2016 and 2017s editions.

Quotations



– Arthur Rimbaud’s quotes are numerous in Sodoma. Rimbaud is called “The Poet” in the book. The 23 quotes from Rimbaud, and twenty+ more words or expressions, are taken from his poetry, especially from : « Une saison en enfer », « Illuminations », « Un cœur sous une soutane », « Mes Petites amoureuses », « Les Poètes de sept ans », « Les Premières communions », « Le châtiment de Tartufe » and « Lettres dites du Voyant ». All the original quotes are from: Rimbaud, Œuvres complètes, Bibliothèque de la Pléiade, Gallimard, 2009.
Here is the list of the main Rimbaud’s quotes or expressions :
• « J’ai seul la clef de cette parade sauvage » (“Parade”, Illuminations)
• « Dit sa prière à l’arc-en-ciel » (“Après le deluge”, Illuminations)
• « La promesse d’un amour multiple et complexe ! » (“Conte”, Illuminations)
• « Gaîté divine » (“Vies”, Illuminations)
• « La mauvaiseté » (word created by Rimbaud in “Lettre du Voyant” I).
• « Défilé de féeries » (“Ornières”, Illuminations)
• « Nocturne vulgaire » (“Nocturne vulgaire”, Illuminations)
• « Satanique docteur » (“Vagabonds”, Illuminations)
• « Ce sont des paradis de tristesse » (“L’époux infernal”, Une Saison en enfer)
• « Ah !… les mille amours qui m’ont crucifié ! » (“Adieu”, Une Saison en enfer)
• « N’ayant pas aimés de femmes, quoique pleins de sang ! » (“Les deserts de l’amour”)
• « Bonheur indicible, insupportable meme » (“Conte”, Illuminations)
• « Obscure infortune » (“Fête de la patience”, “Âge d’or”)
• Les « générosités vulgaires » (“Conte”, Illuminations)
• « Saltimbanque, mendiant, artiste, bandit, – prêtre ! » (Une Saison en enfer)
• “Aromates sacrés” (“L’éclair”, Une Saison en enfer).
• « Inspecter l’invisible et entendre l’inouï » (« Seconde » lettre du voyant)
• « Je sens le roussi » (« Nuit de l’enfer », Une Saison en enfer)
• « Je suis caché et je ne le suis pas » (« Nuit de l’enfer », Une Saison en enfer)
• « Tu veux voir rutiler les bolides ? » (« L’Homme juste »)
• « Intrigues de génies » (« Jeune Ménage »)
• « Le front plein d’éminences » (“Les Poètes de sept ans”)
• « Pluie de vent de diamants » (« Barbare », Illuminations)
• « J’étais bien jeune, et Christ a souillé mes haleines. » (“Premières communions”)
• « Chargé de mon vice, le vice qui a poussé ses racines de souffrance à mon côté dès l’âge de raison – qui monte au ciel, me bat, me renverse, me traîne ». (“Mauvais sang”, Une Saison en enfer)
• « Ô Christ ! éternel voleur des énergies » (Premières communions)
• « Les mille amours qui m’ont crucifié ! », « Des vieilles amours mensongères, « Couples menteurs » (« Adieu », Une Saison en enfer)
• « Gai venin » (« Fêtes de la faim »)
• « L’Orient, la patrie primitive » (L’impossible, Une Saison en enfer)
• « Je n’aime pas les femmes. L’amour est à réinventer. » (« Vierge folle », Une Saison en enfer)
• Excerpts : the expressions « intimités des séminaristes », « revêtue la robe sacrée »,
« capote de séminariste », « les yeux émerg[ent] de sa graisse » are from « Un Cœur sous une soutane ».
• « Il interrogea l’atmosphère d’une façon inquiète », Un Coeur sous une soutane.
• « Égaré dans cette société méchante », Un Coeur sous une soutane.
• « Ô buffet du vieux temps, tu sais bien des histoires », Le Buffet.
• « Une débandade de parfums », « Matinée d’ivresse », Illuminations.
• « Lectures mal bienveillantes », Ce qu’on dit au poète à propos des fleurs.
• The expressions « Vierge folle » and « époux infernal » are from Une Saison en enfer, and for one part, from the Gospels, Matthieu, XXV, 1-13).
• « Folle par affection » (from a poem without title, in July 1872, « Bruxelles » / « Plates-bandes d’amarantes »).
• « Où mille diables bleus dansent dans l’air » (from a poem without title, in July 1872, « Bruxelles » / « Plates-bandes d’amarantes »).
• « Vraiment, c’est bête, ces églises de villages » où les bambins écoutent « les divins babillages ». (“Les Premières Communions”)
• « Noël sur la terre » (« Matin », Une Saison en enfer)
• « Le curé aura emporté la clef de l’église » (« Enfance », Illuminations)
• The expression « Drôle de ménage », the title of one chapter of Sodoma, is taken from Rimbaud’s Une Saison en enfer.

– From Paul Verlaine, « Férus d’une mâle rage de voyage » (Mes Prisons) ; « Don Juan pipé » (« Don Juan Pipé », in Cellulairement) ; « Le roman de vivre à deux hommes / Mieux que non pas d’époux modèles » (“Læti et Errabundi” ou “Joyeux et vagabonds”) ; “L’injure des hommes / Qu’est-ce que cela fait ? / Va, notre coeur sait /Seul ce que nous sommes” (“Jadis et Naguère”).

– From Oscar Wilde, I use a few quotes of Le Portrait de Dorian Gray, Folio, ed. Jean Gallégno, pp. 55, 76, 81, 133 et 199.

– Georges Bernanos : « Épouvantés, ils répètent la formule de Bernanos : « Né pour faire une carrière et non pas une vie » Bernanos, Une nuit ; phrase présente aussi dans le roman La Joie.

– Marguerite Yourcenar : « Cloué au corps aimé comme un crucifié à sa croix ».

– Léon Bloy : « Il n’y a qu’une tristesse, c’est de n’être pas des saints ».

– From Rabelais, I use a few sentences, between quotations marks, from Gargantua et Pantagruel, Quarto/Gallimard : Livre V : pp. 1323, 1335.

– From Jean Genet, I use a few expressions from Notre-Dame-des-Fleurs, 1948, Folio, 2015.

– Neal Cassady : « Christ ! I’m getting corny » : in Letters to Jack Kerouac, p. 60. The word “unstraight” appears in a letter of Jack Kerouac, p. 28 ; the expression “a lack of straightness”, p. 41.

– François René de Chateaubriand : Il « serait un homme à chasser de l’espèce humaine s’il n’avait partagé et surpassé les rigueurs qu’il imposait aux autres » (Vie de Rancé).

– Marcel Proust : “Ces descendants des Sodomistes (…) se sont fixés sur toute la terre, ils ont eu accès à toutes les professions et entrent si bien dans les clubs les plus fermés que, quand un sodomiste n’y est pas admis, les boules noires y sont en majorité celles des sodomistes, mais qui ont soin d’incriminer la sodomie, ayant hérité le mensonge qui permit à leurs ancêtres de quitter la ville maudite. Il est possible qu’ils y retournent un jour. Certes, ils forment dans tous les pays une colonie orientale, cultivée, musicienne, médisante, qui a des qualités charmantes et d’insupportables défauts. On les verra d’une façon plus approfondie au cours des pages qui suivront ; mais on a voulu provisoirement prévenir l’erreur funeste qui consisterait, de meme qu’on a encourage un mouvement sioniste, à créer un mouvement sodomiste et à rebâtir Sodome”. A la Recherche du temps perdu, Sodome et Gomorrhe, I, p. 33 (Folio, Gallimard).

– André Gide :
• « Je ne suis qu’un petit garçon qui s’amuse – doublé d’un pasteur protestant qui l’ennuie. » Journal, June 22, 1907.
• “Cet effort abominable pour emporter au paradis ces péchés”, Journal, 1913.

– La phrase “Honeycomb of closets” is from Mark Jordan, in The silence of sodom: homosexuality in  modern catholicism, Chicago University Press 2000, p. 89.